SORE - Potential Amendments to Subpart I, Part 1065 California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for New 2013 and Later Small Off Road Engines, Engine-Testing Procedures
Potential Amendments to the California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for New 2013 and Later Small Off-Road Engines; Engine-Testing Procedures (Part 1065) as of March 24, 2021.
This page consists of material released as part of the development process for the Proposed Amendments to the Small Off-Road Engine (SORE) Regulations.
For the Proposed Amendments and other rulemaking documents that the Board will consider for adoption during the public hearing in December 2021, please refer to the SORE rulemaking page.
(Note: The potential amendments are shown in underline to indicate additions and
strikeout to indicate deletions from the existing regulatory text.)
Subpart I–Testing with Oxygenated Fuels
§ 1065.801 Applicability.
(a) This subpart applies for testing with oxygenated fuels. Unless the standard‑setting part specifies otherwise, the requirements of this subpart do not apply for fuels that contain less than 25% oxygenated compounds by volume. For example, you generally do not need to follow the requirements of this subpart for tests performed using a fuel containing 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline, but you must follow these requirements for tests performed using a fuel containing 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.
(b) Section 1065.805 applies for all other testing that requires measurement of any alcohols or carbonyls.
(c) This subpart specifies sampling procedures and calculations that are different than those used for non‑oxygenated fuels. All other test procedures of this part 1065 apply for testing with oxygenated fuels.
§ 1065.805 Sampling system.
(a) Dilute engine exhaust, and use batch sampling to collect proportional flow‑weighted dilute samples of the applicable alcohols and carbonyls. You may not use raw sampling for alcohols and carbonyls.
(b) You may collect background samples for correcting dilution air for background concentrations of alcohols and carbonyls.
(c) Maintain sample temperatures within the dilution tunnel, probes, and sample lines high enough to prevent aqueous condensation up to the point where a sample is collected to prevent loss of the alcohols and carbonyls by dissolution in condensed water.
Use good engineering judgment Take appropriate steps to ensure that surface reactions of alcohols and carbonyls do not occur, as surface decomposition of methanol has been shown to occur at temperatures greater than 120 °C in exhaust from methanol‑fueled engines.
(d) You may bubble a sample of the exhaust through water to collect alcohols for later analysis. You may also use a photo‑acoustic analyzer to quantify ethanol and methanol in an exhaust sample as described in §1065.269.
(e) Sample the exhaust through cartridges impregnated with 2,4‑dinitrophenylhydrazine to collect carbonyls for later analysis. If the standard‑setting part specifies a duty cycle that has multiple test intervals (such as multiple engine starts or an engine‑off soak phase), you may proportionally collect a single carbonyl sample for the entire duty cycle. For example, if the standard‑setting part specifies a six‑to‑one weighting of hot‑start to cold‑start emissions, you may collect a single carbonyl sample for the entire duty cycle by using a hot‑start sample flow rate that is six times the cold‑start sample flow rate.
(f) You may sample alcohols or carbonyls using “California Non‑Methane Organic Gas Test Procedures” (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010). If you use this method, follow its calculations to determine the mass of the alcohol/carbonyl in the exhaust sample, but follow subpart G of this part for all other calculations.
Use good engineering judgment to sample Sample other oxygenated hydrocarbon compounds in the exhaust as appropriate for your application.
§ 1065.845 Response factor determination.
Since FID analyzers generally have an incomplete response to alcohols and carbonyls, determine each FID analyzer's alcohol/carbonyl response factor
(such as RFMeOH)(RFOHCi[THC‑FID]) after FID optimization to subtract those responses from the FID reading. Use the most recently determined alcohol/carbonyl response factors to compensate for alcohol/carbonyl response. You are not required to determine the response factor for a compound unless you will subtract its response to compensate for a response. Formaldehyde response is assumed to be zero and does not need to be determined. Use the most recent alcohol/carbonyl response factors to compensate for alcohol/carbonyl response.
(a) You may generate response factors as described in paragraph (b) of this section, or you may use the following default response factors if appropriate for your application:
Table 1 of §1065.845—Default Values for THC FID Response Factor Relative to Propane on a C1-Equivalent Basis
(a) (b) Determine the alcohol/carbonyl response factors as follows:
(1) Select a C3H8 span gas that meets the specifications of § 1065.750. Note that FID zero and span balance gases may be any combination of purified air or purified nitrogen that meets the specifications of § 1065.750. We recommend FID analyzer zero and span gases that contain approximately the flow‑weighted mean concentration of O2 expected during testing. Record the C3H8 concentration of the gas.
(2) Select or prepare an alcohol/carbonyl calibration gas that meets the specifications of § 1065.750 and has a concentration typical of the peak concentration expected at the hydrocarbon standard. Record the calibration concentration of the gas.
(3) Start and operate the FID analyzer according to the manufacturer's instructions.
(4) Confirm that the FID analyzer has been calibrated using C3H8. Calibrate on a carbon number basis of one (C1). For example, if you use a C3H8 span gas of concentration 200 µmol/mol, span the FID to respond with a value of 600 µmol/mol.
(5) Zero the FID. Note that FID zero and span balance gases may be any combination of purified air or purified nitrogen that meets the specifications of § 1065.750. We recommend FID analyzer zero and span gases that contain approximately the flow‑weighted mean concentration of O2 expected during testing.
(6) Span the FID with the C3H8 span gas that you selected under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
(7) Introduce at the inlet of the FID analyzer the alcohol/carbonyl calibration gas that you selected under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
(8) Allow time for the analyzer response to stabilize. Stabilization time may include time to purge the analyzer and to account for its response.
(9) While the analyzer measures the alcohol/carbonyl concentration, record 30 seconds of sampled data. Calculate the arithmetic mean of these values.
(10) Divide the mean measured concentration by the recorded span concentration of the alcohol/carbonyl calibration gas on a C1‑equivalent basis. The result is the FID analyzer's response factor for alcohol/carbonyl, RFMeOH on a C1‑equivalent basis.
(b) (c) Alcohol/carbonyl calibration gases must remain within ±2% of the labeled concentration. You must demonstrate the stability based on a quarterly measurement procedure with a precision of ±2% percent or another method that we approve. Your measurement procedure may incorporate multiple measurements. If the true concentration of the gas changes deviates by more than ±2%, but less than ±10%, the gas may be relabeled with the new concentration.
§ 1065.850 Calculations.
Use the calculations specified in § 1065.665 to determine THCE or NMHCE.