CARB Fact Sheet: 2023 Advanced Clean Fleets Regulation - Drayage Truck Requirements
On April 28, 2023, CARB approved the Advanced Clean Fleets Regulation (ACF), which includes Drayage Truck Requirements for drayage trucks transporting cargo to and from California’s intermodal seaports and railyards.
The ACF Drayage Truck Requirements will help meet the State’s multiple risk reduction, air quality, and climate goals.
The ACF Drayage Truck Requirements will also help meet the directive of Executive Order (EO) N‑79‑20, which set a goal for 100 percent zero-emission drayage trucks in the State by 2035.
The ACF drayage truck reporting deadline is December 31, 2023. CARB is developing the Online Reporting System to ensure access well in advance of the deadline. Additional information will be coming soon. Please subscribe to receive additional updates directly.
Drayage trucks are in-use class 7 and 8 on-road vehicles that transport containers and bulk goods to and from seaports and intermodal railyards.
Combustion powered drayage trucks emit multiple air pollutants including particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and greenhouse gases (GHG).
These trucks contribute to the toxic and harmful emissions impacting surrounding communities, many of which are environmental justice and Assembly Bill 617 communities that bear a disproportionate health burden.
Beginning January 1, 2023, drayage trucks must be compliant with the Truck and Bus Regulation and meet a 2010 or newer model year engine standard.
As of December 31, 2022, there were over 140,000 drayage trucks with 2010 or newer model year engines registered in the CARB drayage truck registry.
Approximately 33,500 drayage trucks service California's seaports and railyards annually, of which approximately 28,700 are trucks that visit California's seaports and intermodal railyards an average of 2 or more times per week or 112 times per year.
Despite the progress made in reducing air pollution, additional drayage truck emission reductions are needed.
Emissions reductions will further protect communities from near-source pollution impacts and help California meet local and national ambient air quality standards and climate goals.
Purpose of the Advanced Clean Fleets Regulation - Drayage Truck Requirements
Expand public health and environmental benefits by increasing the use of zero-emission technology.
Provide PM and NOX emission reductions to help attain regional and federal air quality standards.
Provide GHG emission reductions to help meet the State’s GHG targets and climate goals.
Accelerate the market for zero-emission trucks.
Support the comprehensive statewide strategy to reduce emissions from freight transportation.
Key Elements of the Requirements
Zero-Emission Drayage Truck Requirements
Drayage trucks will be required to start transitioning to zero-emission technology beginning in 2024, with full implementation by 2035.
Drayage Truck Registration Requirements
All drayage trucks intending to begin or continue operations at a California seaport or intermodal railyard must be registered with CARB.
Combustion powered trucks (non-zero-emission) must register in the CARB Online System by 12/31/23.
Only zero-emission drayage trucks can register in the CARB Online System beginning 1/1/24.
Beginning in 2035, all trucks in the CARB Online System will be required to be zero-emission.
Non-Repairable Vehicle: Legacy drayage trucks that are not repairable due to an accident may be replaced by a non-zero-emission vehicle with an engine that is the same or newer model year and remain in compliance until the non-repairable vehicle would have reached its minimum useful life threshold.
Vehicle Delivery Delay Extension: If drayage truck owners or controlling parties have placed an order for a zero-emission vehicle prior to the applicable compliance date but the zero-emission vehicle cannot be delivered due to reasons beyond their control, they may request a compliance extension until a zero-emission vehicle they have ordered is received.
Infrastructure Delay Extensions: The drayage truck owner or controlling party may request an extension if they experience delays due to circumstances beyond their control on a project to install zero-emission vehicle fueling infrastructure.
Removing Combustion-Powered Drayage Trucks from Service
Non-zero-emission drayage trucks in the CARB Online System, with a 2010 or newer model year engine AND that visit a seaport or intermodal railyard at least once in a year, would remain in the system until they reach either 800,000 miles or the engine is older than 18 years, whichever comes first.
Beginning in 2025, non-zero-emission trucks will be removed from the CARB Online System if they did not meet the annual visit requirement, OR if they have exceeded their minimum useful life requirements.
On January 1, 2035, all non-zero-emission drayage trucks will be removed from the system.
Drayage Truck Activities Impact to Disadvantaged Communities
The seaports and intermodal railyards that are required to comply with the existing 2007 Drayage Truck Regulation are all located within about 1 mile of a disadvantaged community, as categorized by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA).
CalEPA uses CalEnviroscreen to score California communities based on environmental pollution burden and socio-economic indicators.
As a result of their closeness to emissions from drayage activity, the communities near seaports and intermodals railyards bear a disproportionate health burden. This emphasizes the need for CARB to help minimize the health impacts caused by drayage trucks.
Available Zero-Emission Drayage Truck Technology
A zero-emission vehicle means an on-road vehicle with a drivetrain that produces zero exhaust emissions of any criteria pollutant (or precursor pollutant) or greenhouse gas under any possible operational modes or conditions. Two types of common zero-emission vehicles include battery-electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric trucks.
Battery electric drayage truck. This vehicle runs on electricity stored in batteries and has an electric motor rather than an internal combustion engine. To recharge the battery pack, drayage truck owners may rely on publicly accessible chargers or at private facilities.
Hydrogen fuel cell electric drayage truck. This vehicle runs on compressed hydrogen fed into a fuel cell “stack” that produces electricity to power the vehicle. Owners of hydrogen fuel cell electric trucks may refuel via publicly accessible or private fueling stations.
Vehicle Turnover Resulting from the Truck and Bus Regulation
As of December 2022, there are over 140,500 trucks in the CARB Drayage Truck Registry with 2010 or newer model year engines.
About 51,500 are California based in-state drayage trucks.
About 89,000 are out of state drayage trucks.
Approximately 33,500 drayage trucks service California’s seaports and intermodal railyards annually, of which 28,700 are trucks that visit California’s seaports and intermodal railyards an average of 2 or more times per week or 112 times per year.
Drayage Truck Emissions Compared to Locomotive Emissions
Drayage trucks and locomotives (trains) move similar types of freight.
Below is an example of drayage truck emissions compared to emissions from trains moving the same amount of freight.
The Draft Truck vs Train Emissions Analysis contains detailed information about these comparisons.
Truck vs. Train comparison of PM2.5 and NOX emissions within 20 miles of the Ports:
More information about the ACF and upcoming meetings and events is available at ACF Website.
Information about zero-emission fueling infrastructure is available at CARB Infrastructure Resource Webpage.
Information about funding is available at the On-Road Heavy-Duty Funding Opportunities Webpage.