CARB Fact Sheet: 2022 Advanced Clean Fleets Regulation - Proposed Drayage Truck Requirements
Drayage trucks will be included as part of the regulatory package under the Advanced Clean Fleets rulemaking focused on strategies to ensure that the cleanest vehicles are deployed by government, business, and other entities in California to meet their transportation needs.
Drayage trucks are in-use class 7 and 8 on-road vehicles that transport containers and bulk goods to and from seaports and intermodal railyards.
Combustion powered drayage trucks emit multiple air pollutants including particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and greenhouse gases (GHG).
These trucks contribute to the toxic and harmful emissions impacting surrounding communities, many of which are environmental justice and Assembly Bill 617 communities that bear a disproportionate health burden.
Existing Drayage Truck Requirements
In 2007, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Regulation to Reduce Emissions from Heavy-Duty On-Road Drayage Trucks in California Port and Intermodal Rail Service (2007 Drayage Truck Regulation).
This Regulation was amended in 2010 and will sunset on December 31, 2022.
Beginning January 1, 2023, drayage trucks must be compliant with the Truck and Bus Regulation and meet a 2010 or newer model year engine standard.
Despite the progress made in reducing air pollution, additional drayage truck emission reductions are needed.
Emissions reductions will further protect communities from near-source pollution impacts and help California meet local and national ambient air quality standards and climate goals.
CARB is developing the proposed Advanced Clean Fleets Regulation (ACF).
The proposed ACF will help meet the State’s multiple risk reduction, air quality, and climate goals.
The proposed ACF will also help meet the directive of Executive Order (EO) N‑79‑20, which set a goal for 100 percent zero-emission drayage trucks in the State by 2035.
Purpose of the Proposed Advanced Clean Fleets Drayage Truck Requirements
Expand public health and environmental benefits by increasing the use of zero-emission technology.
Provide PM and NOx emission reductions to help attain regional and federal air quality standards.
Provide GHG emission reductions to help meet the State’s GHG targets and climate goals.
Accelerate the market for zero-emission trucks.
Support the comprehensive statewide strategy to reduce emissions from freight transportation.
Key Elements of the Proposed Requirements
Zero-Emission Drayage Truck Requirements
Drayage trucks will be required to start transitioning to zero-emission technology beginning in 2024, with full implementation by 2035.
Drayage Truck Registration Requirements
All drayage trucks intending to begin or continue operations at a California seaport or intermodal railyard must be registered with CARB.
Combustion powered trucks (non-zero-emission) must register in the CARB Online System by 12/31/23.
Only zero-emission drayage trucks can register in the CARB Online System after 1/1/24.
Beginning in 2035, all trucks in the CARB Online System will be required to be zero-emission.
Removing Combustion-Powered Drayage Trucks from Service
Non-zero-emission trucks in the CARB Online System on or before January 1, 2024, with a 2010 or newer model year engine AND that have visited a seaport or intermodal railyard at least once in 2024, would remain in the system until they reach either 800,000 miles or the engine is older than 18 years, whichever comes first.
Beginning in 2025, non-zero-emission trucks will be removed from the CARB Online System if they did not meet the annual visit requirement, OR if they have exceeded their minimum useful life requirements.
Cost Impacts of the Proposed Advanced Clean Fleets Drayage Truck Requirements
The total statewide valuation of avoided health outcomes, associated with drayage trucks, from 2024 to 2035 is approximately $3 billion.
The total net direct cost for drayage trucks under the proposed ACF is $0.513 billon (or $513 million).
If the total direct cost for drayage trucks under the proposed ACF is fully passed through to consumers, the total cost per California household from 2024 to 2035 is estimated to be $37.14 with a yearly average of $3.37.
Drayage Truck Activities Impact to Disadvantaged Communities
The seaports and intermodal railyards that are required to comply with the existing 2007 Drayage Truck Regulation are all located within about
1 mile of a disadvantaged community, as categorized by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA).
CalEPA uses CalEnviroscreen to score California communities based on environmental pollution burden and socio-economic indicators.
As a result of their closeness to emissions from drayage activity, the communities near seaports and intermodals railyards bear a disproportionate heath burden. This emphasizes the need for CARB help minimize the health impacts caused by drayage trucks.
Reducing Emissions from Drayage Trucks
The Proposed ACF Drayage Requirements will further reduce Statewide emissions from 2024 to 2035 by approximately:
247 tons of PM2.5
20,536 tons of NOx
Note: The preliminary emission modeling results for the proposed ACF assume that the majority of the Class 7-8 trucks transitioning to zero-emission vehicles are in the drayage sector during the initial phase of implementation.
Available Zero-Emission Drayage Truck Technology
A zero-emission vehicle means an on-road vehicle with a drivetrain that produces zero exhaust emissions of any criteria pollutant (or precursor pollutant) or greenhouse gas under any possible operational modes or conditions. Two types of common zero-emission vehicles include battery-electric and hydrogen fuel cell electric trucks.
Battery electric drayage truck. This vehicle runs on electricity stored in batteries and has an electric motor rather than an internal combustion engine. To recharge the battery pack, drayage truck owners may rely on publicly accessible chargers or choose to install chargers at their facilities.
Hydrogen fuel cell electric drayage truck. This vehicle runs on compressed hydrogen fed into a fuel cell “stack” that produces electricity to power the vehicle. Owners of hydrogen fuel cell electric trucks may refuel via publicly accessible or private fueling stations.
Vehicle Turnover Resulting from the Truck and Bus Regulation
As of January 2022, there are over 205,000 trucks in the CARB Drayage Truck Registry with 2010 or newer model year engines.
About 44,000 are California based in-state drayage trucks.
About 161,000 are out of state drayage trucks.
Approximately 33,500 drayage trucks service California’s seaports and intermodal railyards annually, of which 28,700 are in-state trucks that visit California’s seaports and intermodal railyards an average of 2 or more times per week or 112 times per year.
Drayage Truck Emissions Compared to Locomotive Emissions
Drayage trucks and locomotives (trains) move similar types of freight.
- Below is an example of drayage truck emissions compared to emissions from trains moving the same amount of freight.
- The Draft Truck vs Train Emissions Analysis contains detailed information about these comparisons.
Truck vs. Train comparison of PM2.5 and NOX emissions within 20 miles of the Ports:
The proposed ACF Regulation is anticipated to be presented to the Board in October 2022.
More information about the proposed ACF and upcoming meetings, workshops, and events is available at ACF Website.
Information about zero-emission fueling infrastructure is available at CARB Infrastructure Resource Webpage.
Information about funding is available at the On-Road Heavy-Duty Funding Opportunities Webpage.