Carbon Capture and Sequestration Related Research
Draft Accounting and Permanence Protocol for Carbon Capture and Geologic Sequestration under Low Carbon Fuel Standard
The purpose of the California Air Resourses Board’s (CARB) Accounting and Permanence Requirements for Carbon Capture and Geologic Sequestration (CCS Protocol) is to establish a methodology by which to determine whether a Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) project will result in permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and, if so, how to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from such a project under the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). The CCS Protocol is guided by requirements in AB 32 that GHG emissions reductions achieved from voluntary action, such as CCS projects, must be real, permanent, additional, quantifiable, verifiable, and enforceable.
The Accounting Requirements covers emissions associated with CCS projects, including emissions from CCS operations, CO2 surface leakage, above ground fugitive emissions, and post-well closure emissions. Applicants must use the Accounting Requirements to calculate credits or carbon intensity reductions for CCS projects under LCFS.
The Permanence Requirements establishes provisions for the permanent geologic sequestration of CO2 for CCS projects to qualify for GHG reductions (or non-emissions) under CARB’s existing climate programs in compliance with Assembly Bill 32.1. The Permanence Requirements sets forth criteria and standards that geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) projects must implement in order to acquire Permanence Certification.
Recommendations for Geologic Carbon Sequestration in California: I. Siting Criteria and Monitoring Approaches, II. Example Application Case Study, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 15, 2017
The purpose of the present study is to build upon the prior report completed under ARB Agreement No. 12-411 in two primary areas: (1) recommend storage siting criteria and favorable properties of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, and (2) evaluate monitoring approaches aimed at ensuring sequestration permanence under ARB’s CCS program. In this report, we provide recommendations on GCS siting criteria and other favorable properties of GCS sites that will maximize likelihood of achieving real and permanent CO2 sequestration by means of CCS. Note the focus of this study is on siting and monitoring to minimize the risk of loss of CO2 containment, relative to meeting compliance obligations or carbon intensity goals. We do not focus on health, safety, and environment (HSE) risk, which has been the subject of most other GCS risk-based site-selection studies, although such concerns are one factor in the population density site-selection criteria we recommend.
Review of Quantitative Monitoring Methodologies for Emissions Verification and Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage for California’s Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade and Low-Carbon Fuel Standard Programs, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, December 23, 2014
The objective of this report is to carry out a technical evaluation of existing CCS GHG quantification methodologies for GHG emissions and inventory accounting related to the geologic storage component of CCS. The review encompasses methodologies from around the world. However, the emphasis is on evaluating methods appropriate for CO2 injection within California given California’s geology and hydrology characteristics and the potential for subsurface-to-atmosphere leakage. Notwithstanding the California emphasis, eligible projects may occur outside of California and the MVA protocols should be able to accommodate the geologic conditions in other states. The MVA protocol should also be developed with awareness to MVA protocols used in other states and nationally and consider best practices. The results of the evaluation presented here are intended to be used by CARB to inform the development of policy and protocols for MVA for the geologic storage part of CCS, with specific focus on California’s Cap-and-Trade and LCFS programs.