SORE - Potential Amendments to Subpart K, Part 1065 California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for New 2013 and Later Small Off Road Engines, Engine-Testing Procedures
Potential Amendments to the California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for New 2013 and Later Small Off-Road Engines; Engine-Testing Procedures (Part 1065) as of March 24, 2021.
This page consists of material released as part of the development process for the Proposed Amendments to the Small Off-Road Engine (SORE) Regulations.
For the Proposed Amendments and other rulemaking documents that the Board will consider for adoption during the public hearing in December 2021, please refer to the SORE rulemaking page.
(Note: The potential amendments are shown in underline to indicate additions and
strikeout to indicate deletions from the existing regulatory text.)
Subpart K–Definitions and Other Reference Information
§ 1065.1001 Definitions.
The definitions in Section 2401, Chapter 9, Title 13,
of the California Code of Regulations , 40 CFR and Part 1054.801 , and 1068.30 apply with the following additions:
The definitions in this section apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Act gives them. The definitions follow:
300 series stainless steel means any stainless steel alloy with a Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys number designated from S30100 to S39000. For all instances in this part where we specify 300 series stainless steel, such parts must also have a smooth inner‑wall construction. We recommend an average roughness, Ra, no greater than 4 µm.
Accuracy means the absolute difference between a reference quantity and the arithmetic mean of ten mean measurements of that quantity. Determine instrument accuracy, repeatability, and noise from the same data set. We specify a procedure for determining accuracy in § 1065.305.
Adjustable parameter means any device, system, or element of design that someone can adjust (including those which are difficult to access) and that, if adjusted, may affect emissions or engine performance during emission testing or normal in‑use operation. This includes, but is not limited to, parameters related to injection timing and fueling rate. You may ask us to exclude a parameter that is difficult to access if it cannot be adjusted to affect emissions without significantly degrading engine performance, or if you otherwise show us that it will not be adjusted in a way that affects emissions during in‑use operation.
Aerodynamic diameter means the diameter of a spherical water droplet that settles at the same constant velocity as the particle being sampled.
Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, thermal reactor, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to decrease emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust‑gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment.
Allowed procedures means procedures that we either specify in this part 1065 or in the standard‑setting part or approve under § 1065.10.
Alternate procedures means procedures allowed under § 1065.10(c)(7).
Applicable emission standard or applicable standard means an emission standard to which an engine (or equipment) is subject. Additionally, if an engine (or equipment) has been or is being certified to another standard or FEL, applicable emission standard means the FEL or other standard to which the engine (or equipment) has been or is being certified.
Aqueous condensation means the precipitation of water‑containing constituents from a gas phase to a liquid phase. Aqueous condensation is a function of humidity, pressure, temperature, and concentrations of other constituents such as sulfuric acid. These parameters vary as a function of engine intake‑air humidity, dilution‑air humidity, engine air‑to‑fuel ratio, and fuel composition—including the amount of hydrogen and sulfur in the fuel.
Atmospheric pressure means the wet, absolute, atmospheric static pressure. Note that if you measure atmospheric pressure in a duct, you must ensure that there are negligible pressure losses between the atmosphere and your measurement location, and you must account for changes in the duct's static pressure resulting from the flow.
Auto‑ranging means a gas analyzer function that automatically changes the analyzer digital resolution to a larger range of concentrations as the concentration approaches 100% of the analyzer's current range. Auto‑ranging does not mean changing an analog amplifier gain within an analyzer.
Auxiliary emission‑control device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission‑control system.
Brake power means the usable power output of the engine, not including power required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices.
C1 equivalent (or basis) means a convention of expressing HC concentrations based on the total number of carbon atoms present, such that the C1 equivalent of a molar HC concentration equals the molar concentration multiplied by the mean number of carbon atoms in each HC molecule. For example, the C1 equivalent of 10 µmol/mol of propane (C3H8) is 30 µmol/mol. C1 equivalent molar values may be denoted as “ppmC” in the standard‑setting part. Molar mass may also be expressed on a C1 basis. Note that calculating HC masses from molar concentrations and molar masses is only valid where they are each expressed on the same carbon basis.
Calibration means the set of specifications and tolerances specific to a particular design, version, or application of a component or assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.
Calibration gas means a purified gas mixture used to calibrate gas analyzers. Calibration gases must meet the specifications of § 1065.750. Note that calibration gases and span gases are qualitatively the same, but differ in terms of their primary function. Various performance verification checks for gas analyzers and sample handling components might refer to either calibration gases or span gases.
CARB means the California Air Resources Board.
Certificate of Conformity means an Executive Order issued in accordance with the California Health and Safety Code, Division 26, Part 5.
Certification means, with respect to new small off‑road engines, obtaining an executive order for an engine family complying with the small off‑road engine emission standards and requirements specified in the California Code of Regulations, Title 13, Chapter 9, Sections 2400‑2409
Compression‑ignition means relating to a type of reciprocating, internal‑combustion engine that is not a spark‑ignition engine.
Confidence interval means the range associated with a probability that a quantity will be considered statistically equivalent to a reference quantity.
Constant‑speed engine means an engine whose certification is limited to constant‑speed operation. Engines whose constant‑speed governor function is removed or disabled are no longer constant‑speed engines.
Constant‑speed operation means engine operation with a governor that automatically controls the operator demand to maintain engine speed, even under changing load. Governors do not always maintain speed exactly constant. Typically, speed can decrease (0.1 to 10) % below the speed at zero load, such that the minimum speed occurs near the engine's point of maximum power. (Note: An engine with an adjustable governor setting may be considered to operate at constant speed, subject to our approval. For such engines, the governor setting is considered an adjustable parameter.)
Coriolis meter means a flow‑measurement instrument that determines the mass flow of a fluid by sensing the vibration and twist of specially designed flow tubes as the flow passes through them. The twisting characteristic is called the Coriolis effect. According to Newton's Second Law of Motion, the amount of sensor tube twist is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing through the tube. See § 1065.220.
Designated Compliance Officer means the Executive Officer of the Air Resources Board, or a designee of the Executive Officer.
Dewpoint means a measure of humidity stated as the equilibrium temperature at which water condenses under a given pressure from moist air with a given absolute humidity. Dewpoint is specified as a temperature in °C or K, and is valid only for the pressure at which it is measured. See § 1065.645 to determine water vapor mole fractions from dewpoints using the pressure at which the dewpoint is measured.
Dilution ratio (DR) means the amount of diluted exhaust per amount of undiluted exhaust.
Discrete‑mode means relating to the discrete‑mode type of steady‑state test described in Part §1054.505.
Dispersion means either:
(1) The broadening and lowering of a signal due to any fluid capacitance, fluid mixing, or electronic filtering in a sampling system. (Note: To adjust a signal so its dispersion matches that of another signal, you may adjust the system's fluid capacitance, fluid mixing, or electronic filtering.)
(2) The mixing of a fluid, especially as a result of fluid mechanical forces or chemical diffusion.
Drift means the difference between a zero or calibration signal and the respective value reported by a measurement instrument immediately after it was used in an emission test, as long as you zeroed and spanned the instrument just before the test.
Duty cycle means one of the following:
(1) A series of speed and torque values (or power values) that an engine must follow during a laboratory test. Duty cycles are specified in the standard‑setting part. A single duty cycle may consist of one or more test intervals. A series of speed and torque values meeting the definition of this paragraph (1) may also be considered a test cycle. For example, a duty cycle may be a ramped‑modal cycle, which has one test interval; a cold‑start plus hot‑start transient cycle, which has two test intervals; or a discrete‑mode cycle, which has one test interval for each mode.
(2) A set of weighting factors and the corresponding speed and torque values, where the weighting factors are used to combine the results of multiple test intervals into a composite result.
Electronic control module means an engine's electronic device that uses data from engine sensors to control engine parameters.
Emission‑control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls or reduces the emissions of regulated pollutants from an engine.
Emission‑data engine means an engine that is tested for certification. This includes engines tested to establish deterioration factors.
Emission‑related maintenance means maintenance that substantially affects emissions or is likely to substantially affect emission deterioration.
Enhanced‑idle means a mode of engine idle operation where idle speed is elevated above warm idle speed as determined by the electronic control module, for example during engine warm‑up or to increase exhaust temperature.
Engine as used in this part, refers to a small off‑road engine as defined in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, Section 2401.
Engine family means a group of engines with similar emission characteristics throughout the useful life, as specified in the standard‑setting part.
Engine governed speed means the engine operating speed when it is controlled by the installed governor.
Equipment means any nonroad tool, device, vehicle or other machinery which is powered by a small off‑road engine as defined in Title 13, California Code of Regulations, Section 2401.
EPA means Air Resources Board.
Executive Order means an order issued by the Executive Officer of the Air Resources Board or his or her delegate certifying engines for sale in California.
Exhaust‑gas recirculation means a technology that reduces emissions by routing exhaust gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the engine to be mixed with incoming air before or during combustion. The use of valve timing to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed with incoming air before or during combustion is not considered exhaust‑gas recirculation for the purposes of this part.
Fall time, t90‑10, means the time interval of a measurement instrument's response after any step decrease to the input between the following points:
(1) The point at which the response has fallen 10% of the total amount it will fall in response to the step change.
(2) The point at which the response has fallen 90% of the total amount it will fall in response to the step change.
Flow‑weighted mean means the mean of a quantity after it is weighted proportional to a corresponding flow rate. For example, if a gas concentration is measured continuously from the raw exhaust of an engine, its flow‑weighted mean concentration is the sum of the products of each recorded concentration times its respective exhaust flow rate, divided by the sum of the recorded flow rates. As another example, the bag concentration from a CVS system is the same as the flow‑weighted mean concentration, because the CVS system itself flow‑weights the bag concentration.
Fuel type means a general category of fuels such as gasoline or natural gas. There can be multiple grades within a single fuel type, such as low‑temperature or all‑season gasoline.
HEPA filter means high‑efficiency particulate air filters that are rated to achieve a minimum initial particle‑removal efficiency of 99.97% using ASTM F 1471‑93 (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010).
High‑idle speed means the engine speed at which an engine governor function controls engine speed with operator demand at maximum and with zero load applied. “Warm high‑idle speed” is the high‑idle speed of a warmed‑up engine.
High‑speed governor means any device, system, or element of design that modulates the engine output torque for the purpose of limiting the maximum engine speed.
Hydraulic diameter means the diameter of a circle whose area is equal to the area of a noncircular cross section of tubing, including its wall thickness. The wall thickness is included only for the purpose of facilitating a simplified and nonintrusive measurement.
Hydrocarbon (HC) means the hydrocarbon group on which the emission standards are based for each fuel type, as described in subpart B of
40 CFR Part 1054.
Identification number means a unique specification (for example, a model number/serial number combination) that allows someone to distinguish a particular engine from other similar engines.
Idle speed means the
lowest engine speed with minimum load (greater than or equal to zero load), where an engine governor function controls engine speed.engine speed at which an engine governor function controls engine speed with operator demand at minimum and with minimum load applied (greater than or equal to zero). For engines without a governor function that controls idle speed, idle speed means the manufacturer‑declared value for lowest engine speed possible with minimum load.This definition does not apply for operation designated as “high‑idle speed.” Note that warm idle speed“Warm idle speed” is the idle speed of a warmed‑up engine.
Intermediate test speed has the meaning given in § 1065.610.
Linearity means the degree to which measured values agree with respective reference values. Linearity is quantified using a linear regression of pairs of measured values and reference values over a range of values expected or observed during testing. Perfect linearity would result in an intercept, a0, equal to zero, a slope, a1, of one, a coefficient of determination, r2, of one, and a standard error of the estimate, SEE, of zero. The term “linearity” is not used in this part to refer to the shape of a measurement instrument's unprocessed response curve, such as a curve relating emission concentration to voltage output. A properly performing instrument with a nonlinear response curve will meet linearity specifications.
Maximum test speed has the meaning given in § 1065.610.
Maximum test torque has the meaning given in § 1065.610.
Measurement allowance means a specified adjustment in the applicable emission standard or a measured emission value to reflect the relative quality of the measurement. See the standard‑setting part to determine whether any measurement allowances apply for your testing. Measurement allowances generally apply only for field testing and are intended to account for reduced accuracy or precision that result from using field‑grade measurement systems.
Mode means one of the following:
(1) A distinct combination of engine speed and load for steady‑state testing.
(2) A continuous combination of speeds and loads specifying a transition during a ramped‑modal test.
(3) A distinct operator demand setting, such as would occur when testing
locomotives or constant‑speed engines.
NIST‑accepted means relating to a value that has been assigned or named by NIST.
NIST‑traceable means relating to a standard value that can be related to NIST‑stated references through an unbroken chain of comparisons, all having stated uncertainties, as specified in NIST Technical Note 1297 (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010). Allowable uncertainty limits specified for NIST‑traceability refer to the propagated uncertainty specified by NIST. You may ask to use other internationally recognized standards that are equivalent to NIST standards.
Noise means the precision of 30 seconds of updated recorded values from a measurement instrument as it quantifies a zero or reference value. Determine instrument noise, repeatability, and accuracy from the same data set. We specify a procedure for determining noise in § 1065.305.
Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) means the sum of all hydrocarbon species except methane. Refer to § 1065.660 for NMHC determination.
Nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent (NMHCE) means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non‑oxygenated nonmethane hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as exhaust nonmethane hydrocarbon from petroleum‑fueled engines. The hydrogen‑to‑carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1. Nonmethane nonethane hydrocarbon (NMNEHC) means the sum of all hydrocarbon species except methane and ethane. Refer to §1065.660 for NMNEHC determination.
Nonroad means relating to nonroad engines.
Nonroad engine means a small off‑road engine as defined in the California Code of Regulations, Title 13, Chapter 9, Section 2401.
Open crankcase emissions means any flow from an engine's crankcase that is emitted directly into the environment. Crankcase emissions are not “open crankcase emissions” if the engine is designed to always route all crankcase emissions back into the engine (for example, through the intake system or an aftertreatment system) such that all the crankcase emissions, or their products, are emitted into the environment only through the engine exhaust system.
Operator demand means an engine operator's input to control engine output. The “operator” may be a person (i.e., manual), or a governor (i.e., automatic) that mechanically or electronically signals an input that demands engine output. Input may be from an accelerator pedal or signal, a throttle‑control lever or signal, a fuel lever or signal, a speed lever or signal, or a governor setpoint or signal. Output means engine power, P, which is the product of engine speed, fn, and engine torque, T.
Oxides of nitrogen means NO and NO2 as measured by the procedures specified in § 1065.270. Oxides of nitrogen are expressed quantitatively as if the NO is in the form of NO2, such that you use an effective molar mass for all oxides of nitrogen equivalent to that of NO2.
Oxygenated fuels means fuels composed of at least 25% oxygen‑containing compounds, such as ethanol or methanol. Testing engines that use oxygenated fuels generally requires the use of the sampling methods in subpart I of this part. However, you should read the standard‑setting part and subpart I of this part to determine appropriate sampling methods.
Partial pressure means the pressure, p, attributable to a single gas in a gas mixture. For an ideal gas, the partial pressure divided by the total pressure is equal to the constituent's molar concentration, x.
Percent (%) means a representation of exactly 0.01 (with infinite precision). Significant digits for the product of % and another value, or the expression of any other value as a percentage, are defined as follows: (1) Where we specify some percentage of a total value, the calculated value has the same number of significant digits as the total value. The specified percentage by which the total value is multiplied has infinite precision. Note that not all displayed or recorded digits are significant. For example, 2% of a span value where the span value is 101.3302 is 2.026604. However, where the span value has limited precision such that only one digit to the right of the decimal is significant (i.e., the actual value is 101.3), 2% of the span value is 2.026. (2) In other cases, determine the number of significant digits using the same method as you would use for determining the number of significant digits of any calculated value. For example, a calculated value of 0.321, where all three digits are significant, is equivalent to 32.1%.
Percent (%) means a representation of exactly 0.01. Numbers expressed as percentages in this part (such as a tolerance of ±2%) have infinite precision, so 2% and 2.000000000% have the same meaning. This means that where we specify some percentage of a total value, the calculated value has the same number of significant digits as the total value. For example, 2% of a span value where the span value is 101.3302 is 2.026604.
Portable emission measurement system (PEMS) means a measurement system consisting of portable equipment that can be used to generate brake‑specific emission measurements during field testing or laboratory testing.
Precision means two times the standard deviation of a set of measured values of a single zero or reference quantity. See also the related definitions of noise and repeatability in this section.
Procedures means all aspects of engine testing, including the equipment specifications, calibrations, calculations and other protocols and specifications needed to measure emissions, unless we specify otherwise.
Proving Ring is a device used to measure static force based on the linear relationship between stress and strain in an elastic material. It is typically a steel alloy ring, and you measure the deflection (strain) of its diameter when a static force (stress) is applied across its diameter.
PTFE means polytetrafluoroethylene, commonly known as TeflonTM.
Purified air means air meeting the specifications for purified air in §1065.750. Purified air may be produced by purifying ambient air. The purification may occur at the test site or at another location (such as at a gas supplier's facility). Alternatively, purified air may be synthetically generated from purified oxygen and nitrogen. The addition of other elements normally present in purified ambient air (such as Ar) is not required.
Ramped‑modal means ramped‑modal type of steady‑state test, as described in
40 CFR Part 1054.
Recommend has the meaning given in § 1065.201.
Regression statistics means any of the regression statistics specified in § 1065.602.
Repeatability means the precision of ten mean measurements of a reference quantity. Determine instrument repeatability, accuracy, and noise from the same data set. We specify a procedure for determining repeatability in § 1065.305.
Revoke has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.
Rise time, t10‑90, means the time interval of a measurement instrument's response after any step increase to the input between the following points:
(1) The point at which the response has risen 10% of the total amount it will rise in response to the step change.
(2) The point at which the response has risen 90% of the total amount it will rise in response to the step change.
Roughness (or average roughness, Ra) means the size of finely distributed vertical surface deviations from a smooth surface, as determined when traversing a surface. It is an integral of the absolute value of the roughness profile measured over an evaluation length.
to round numbers according to NIST SP 811 (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010) to apply the rounding convention specified in §1065.20(e), unless otherwise specified.
Scheduled maintenance means adjusting, repairing, removing, disassembling, cleaning, or replacing components or systems periodically to keep a part or system from failing, malfunctioning, or wearing prematurely. It also may mean actions you expect are necessary to correct an overt indication of failure or malfunction for which periodic maintenance is not appropriate.
Shared atmospheric pressure meter means an atmospheric pressure meter whose output is used as the atmospheric pressure for an entire test facility that has more than one dynamometer test cell.
Shared humidity measurement means a humidity measurement that is used as the humidity for an entire test facility that has more than one dynamometer test cell.
SI‑traceable means relating to a standard value that can be related to references within the Systeme Internationale (SI) through an unbroken chain of comparisons, all having stated uncertainties, through NIST or another member of the Mutual Recognition Agreement of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (MRA‑CIPM), in a manner consistent with that specified in NIST Technical Note 1297 (incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010). Allowable uncertainty limits specified for SI‑traceability refer to the propagated uncertainty specified by the MRA‑CIPM member through which the reference is traceable.
Small volume engine manufacturer means any engine manufacturer whose total production of small off‑road engines slated for sale in California are projected at the time of certification of a given model year to be no more than 500 engines.
Span means to adjust an instrument so that it gives a proper response to a calibration standard that represents between 75% and 100% of the maximum value in the instrument range or expected range of use.
Span gas means a purified gas mixture used to span gas analyzers. Span gases must meet the specifications of § 1065.750. Note that calibration gases and span gases are qualitatively the same, but differ in terms of their primary function. Various performance verification checks for gas analyzers and sample handling components might refer to either calibration gases or span gases.
Spark‑ignition means relating to a gasoline‑fueled engine or any other type of engine with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark‑ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation.
Special procedures mean
s procedures allowed under § 1065.10(c)(2).
Specified procedures means procedures we specify in this part 1065 or the standard‑setting part. Other procedures allowed or required by § 1065.10(c) are not specified procedures.
Standard deviation has the meaning given in § 1065.602. Note this is the standard deviation for a non‑biased sample.
Standard‑setting part means the part in the Code of
Federal California Regulations that defines emission standards for a particular engine. See § 1065.1(a).
Steady‑state means relating to emission tests in which engine speed and load are held at a finite set of essentially constant values. Steady‑state tests are either discrete‑mode tests or ramped‑modal tests.
Stoichiometric means relating to the particular ratio of air and fuel such that if the fuel were fully oxidized, there would be no remaining fuel or oxygen. For example, stoichiometric combustion in a gasoline‑fueled engine typically occurs at an air‑to‑fuel mass ratio of about 14.7:1.
Storage medium means a particulate filter, sample bag, or any other storage device used for batch sampling.
t0−50 means the time interval of a measurement system's response after any step increase to the input between the following points:
(1) The point at which the step change is initiated at the sample probe.
(2) The point at which the response has risen 50% of the total amount it will rise in response to the step change.
t100−50 means the time interval of a measurement system's response after any step decrease to the input between the following points:
(1) The point at which the step change is initiated at the sample probe.
(2) The point at which the response has fallen 50% of the total amount it will fall in response to the step change.
Test engine means an engine in a test sample.
Test interval means a duration of time over which you determine brake‑specific emissions. For example, the standard‑setting part may specify a complete laboratory duty cycle as a cold‑start test interval, plus a hot‑start test interval. As another example, a standard‑setting part may specify a field‑test interval, such as a “not‑to‑exceed” (NTE) event, as a duration of time over which an engine operates within a certain range of speed and torque. In cases where multiple test intervals occur over a duty cycle, the standard‑setting part may specify additional calculations that weight and combine results to arrive at composite values for comparison against the applicable standards.
Test sample means the collection of engines selected from the population of an emission family for emission testing. This may include testing for certification, production‑line testing, or in‑use testing.
Tolerance means the interval in which at least 95% of a set of recorded values of a certain quantity must lie. Use the specified recording frequencies and time intervals to determine if a quantity is within the applicable tolerance. The concept of tolerance is intended to address random variability. You may not take advantage of the tolerance specification to incorporate a bias into a measurement.
Total hydrocarbon (THC) means the combined mass of organic compounds measured by the specified procedure for measuring total hydrocarbon, expressed as a hydrocarbon with a hydrogen‑to‑carbon mass ratio of 1.85:1.
Total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE) means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non‑oxygenated hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as exhaust hydrocarbon from petroleum‑fueled engines. The hydrogen‑to‑carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1.
Transformation time, t50, means the overall system response time to any step change in input, generally the average of the time to reach 50% response to a step increase, t0−50, or to a step decrease, t100−50.
Uncertainty means uncertainty with respect to
NIST SI‑traceability. See the definition of NIST SI‑traceable in this section.
Useful life means the period during which the engine and equipment are designed to properly function in terms of power output and intended function, without being remanufactured, specified as a number of hours of operation or calendar years, whichever comes first. It is the period during which an off‑road engine must comply with all applicable emission standards. If an engine has no hour meter, the specified number of hours does not limit the period during which an in‑use engine is required to comply with emission standards unless the degree of service accumulation can be verified separately.
Variable‑speed engine means an engine that is not a constant‑speed engine.
Vehicle means any vehicle, vessel, or type of equipment using engines to which this part applies. For purposes of this part, the term “vehicle” may include nonmotive machines or equipment such as a pump or generator.
Verification means to evaluate whether or not a measurement system's outputs agree with a range of applied reference signals to within one or more predetermined thresholds for acceptance. Contrast with “calibration”.
We (us, our) means the Executive Officer of the Air Resources Board or a designee of the Executive Officer.
Work has the meaning given in § 1065.110.
Zero means to adjust an instrument so it gives a zero response to a zero calibration standard, such as purified nitrogen or purified air for measuring concentrations of emission constituents.
Zero gas means a gas that yields a zero response in an analyzer. This may either be purified nitrogen, purified air, a combination of purified air and purified nitrogen. For field testing, zero gas may include ambient air.
[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37346, June 30, 2008; 73 FR 59342, Oct. 8, 2008; 74 FR 8428, Feb. 24, 2009; 74 FR 56518, Oct. 30, 2009; 75 FR 23058, Apr. 30, 2010]
§ 1065.1005 Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms, and units of measure.
The procedures in this part generally follow the International System of Units (SI), as detailed in NIST Special Publication 811,
1995 Edition, “Guide for the Use of the International System, of Units (SI),” which we incorporate by reference in § 1065.1010. See § 1065.25 for specific provisions related to these conventions. This section summarizes the way we use symbols, units of measure, and other abbreviations.
(a) Symbols for quantities. This part uses the following symbols and units of measure for various quantities:
Units in terms of SI base units
atomic hydrogen‑to‑carbon ratio
mole per mole
intercept of least squares regression
slope of least squares regression
acceleration of Earth's gravity
meter per square second
ratio of diameters
meter per meter
atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
mole per mole
number of carbon atoms in a molecule
atomic nitrogen‑to‑carbon ratio
mole per mole
mole per mol
error between a quantity and its reference
gram per kilowatt hour
revolutions per minute
ratio of specific heats
(joule per kilogram kelvin) per (joule per kilogram kelvin)
gram per mole
kilogram per second
meter squared per second
total number in series
amount of substance
amount of substance rate
mole per second
kilogram per cubic meter
ratio of pressures
pascal per pascal
coefficient of determination
average surface roughness
non‑biased standard deviation
standard estimate of error
torque (moment of force)
time interval, period, 1/frequency
volume cubic meter
cubic meter per second
carbon mass fraction
gram per gram
amount of substance mole fraction
mole per mole
flow‑weighted mean concentration
mole per mole
(b) Symbols for chemical species. This part uses the following symbols for chemical species and exhaust constituents:
nonmethane hydrocarbon equivalent.
oxides of nitrogen.
nonmethane organic gases.
non‑oxygenated nonmethane hydrocarbon.
semi‑volatile organic compound.
total hydrocarbon equivalent.
(c) Prefixes. This part uses the following prefixes
to define a quantity for units and unit symbols:
(d) Superscripts. This part uses the following superscripts
to define a quantity for modifying quantity symbols:
overbar (such as ȳ)
overdot (such as ẏ)
quantity per unit time.
(e) Subscripts. This part uses the following subscripts
to define a quantity for modifying quantity symbols:
critical flow venturi.
condition at high‑idle.
an individual of a series.
condition at idle.
initial quantity, typically before an emission test.
an individual of a series.
conditions over which an engine can operate.
the maximum (i.e., peak) value expected at the standard over a test interval; not the maximum of an instrument range.
PM sample media.
mixture of diluted exhaust and air.
after the test interval.
before the test interval.
engine strokes per power stroke.
alternate test quantity.
vacuum side of the sampling system.
(1) This part uses the following constants for the composition of dry air:
amount of argon in dry air
amount of carbon dioxide in dry air
amount of nitrogen in dry air
amount of oxygen in dry air
(2) This part uses the following molar masses or effective molar masses of chemical species:
molar mass of dry air
molar mass of argon
molar mass of carbon
molar mass of methanol
molar mass of ethanol
molar mass of acetaldehyde
molar mass of urea
molar mass of propane
molar mass of propanol
molar mass of methane
molar mass of carbon monoxide
molar mass of carbon dioxide
molar mass of atomic hydrogen
molar mass of molecular hydrogen
molar mass of water
molar mass of formaldehyde
molar mass of helium
molar mass of atomic nitrogen
molar mass of molecular nitrogen
molar mass of ammonia
effective molar mass of nonmethane hydrocarbon
effective molar mass of nonmethane equivalent hydrocarbon
effective C1 molar mass of nonmethane‑nonethane hydrocarbonb
effective molar mass of oxides of nitrogen
effective molar mass of nitrous oxide
molar mass of atomic oxygen
molar mass of molecular oxygen
molar mass of sulfur
effective molar mass of total hydrocarbon
effective molar mass of total hydrocarbon equivalent
(3) This part uses the following molar gas constant for ideal gases:
J/(mol)·K)(m2·kg·s−2 mol−1· K−1)
molar gas constant
(4) This part uses the following ratios of specific heats for dilution air and diluted exhaust:
ratio of specific heats for intake air or dilution air
ratio of specific heats for diluted exhaust
ratio of specific heats for raw exhaust
(g) Other acronyms and abbreviations. This part uses the following additional abbreviations and acronyms:
brake‑specific fuel consumption.
California Air Resources Board.
Code of Federal Regulations.
Curb Idle Transmission Torque.
electronic control module.
electronic flow control.
exhaust gas recirculation.
Environmental Protection Agency.
Family Emission Limit.
Fourier transform infrared.
gas chromatograph with an electron‑capture detector.
gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.
high‑efficiency particulate air.
initial boiling point.
incorporated by reference.
in other words.
International Organization for Standardization.
liquefied petroleum gas.
National Institute for Standards and Technology.
portable emission measurement system.
porous layer open tubular.
a single point at the mean value expected at the standard.
pounds per square inch.
polytetrafluoroethylene (commonly known as TeflonTM).
rechargeable energy storage system.
response factor penetration fraction.
resistive temperature detector.
surface acoustic wave.
standard estimate of error.
total hydrocarbon flame ionization detector.
inverse student t‑test function in Microsoft Excel.
upper confidence limit.
ultrasonic flow meter.
United States Code.
§ 1065.1010 Reference materials.
Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference into this part. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Room B102, EPA West Building, Washington, DC 20460 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202‑741‑6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ib…. (a) ASTM material. Table 1 of this section lists material from the American Society for Testing and Materials that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the sections of this part where we reference it. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 or www.astm.com. Table 1 follows: Table 1 of § 1065.1010.‑ASTM Materials
(b) ISO material. Table 2 of this section lists material from the International Organization for Standardization that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the section of this part where we reference it. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, CH‑1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland or www.iso.org. Table 2 follows: Table 2 of § 1065.1010—ISO Materials
(c) NIST material. Table 3 of this section lists material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the section of this part where we reference it. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402 or download them free from the Internet at www.nist.gov. Table 3 follows: Table 3 of § 1065.1010—NIST Materials
(d) SAE material. Table 4 of this section lists material from the Society of Automotive Engineering that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the sections of this part where we reference it. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 4 follows: Table 4 of § 1065.1010—SAE Material
(e) California Air Resources Board material. Table 5 of this section lists material from the California Air Resources Board that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the sections of this part where we reference it. Anyone may get copies of these materials from the California Air Resources Board, 9528 Telstar Ave., El Monte, California 91731. Table 5 follows: Table 5 of § 1065.1010—California Air Resources Board Materials
(f) Institute of Petroleum material. Table 6 of this section lists the Institute of Petroleum standard test methods material from the Energy Institute that we have incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the material. The second column lists the section of this part where we reference it. Anyone may purchase copies of these materials from the Energy Institute, 61 New Cavendish Street, London, W1G 7AR, UK , +44 (0)20 7467 7100 or www.energyinst.org.uk. Table 6 follows: Table 6 of § 1065.1010—Institute of Petroleum Materials
(a) Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference into this Part as noted.
(b) ASTM material. The following standards are available from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428‑2959, (877) 909‑2786, or http://www.astm.org:
(24) ASTM D2986‑95a, Standard Practice for Evaluation of Air Assay Media by the Monodisperse DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) Smoke Test, approved September 10, 1995 (“ASTM D2986”), cited in §1065.170(c). (Note: This standard was withdrawn by ASTM.)
(28) ASTM D4629‑12, Standard Test Method for Trace Nitrogen in Liquid Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Syringe/Inlet Oxidative Combustion and Chemiluminescence Detection, approved April 15, 2012 (“ASTM D4629”), cited in §1065.655(e).
(33) ASTM D5291‑10, Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Petroleum Products and Lubricants, approved May 1, 2010 (“ASTM D5291”), cited in §1065.655(e).
(35) ASTM D5599‑00 (Reapproved 2010), Standard Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection, approved October 1, 2010 (“ASTM D5599”), cited in §§1065.655(e) and 1065.710(b).
(36) ASTM D5762‑12 Standard Test Method for Nitrogen in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Boat‑Inlet Chemiluminescence, approved April 15, 2012 (“ASTM D5762”), cited in §1065.655(e).
(38) ASTM D5797‑13, Standard Specification for Fuel Methanol (M70‑ M85) for Automotive Spark‑Ignition Engines, approved June 15, 2013 (“ASTM D5797”), cited in §1065.701(f).
(39) ASTM D5798‑13a, Standard Specification for Ethanol Fuel Blends for Flexible Fuel Automotive Spark‑Ignition Engines, approved June 15, 2013 (“ASTM D5798”), cited in §1065.701(f).
(40) ASTM D6348‑12ε1, Standard Test Method for Determination of Gaseous Compounds by Extractive Direct Interface Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, approved February 1, 2012 (“ASTM D6348”), cited in §§1065.266(b) and 1065.275(b).
(47) ASTM F1471‑09, Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High‑ Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, approved March 1, 2009 (“ASTM F1471”), cited in §1065.1001.
(48) ASTM D1835 – 97t, Standard Specification for Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases, approved November 10, 1997 (“ASTM 1835‑97”), cited in §1065.701.
(49) ASTM E29 ‑ 13, Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications, approved August 1, 2013, cited in §1065.20.
(c) California Air Resources Board material. The following documents are available from the California Air Resources Board, Haagen‑Smit Laboratory, 9528 Telstar Ave., El Monte, CA 91731‑2908, (800) 242‑4450, or https://www.arb.ca.gov:
(1) California Non‑Methane Organic Gas Test Procedures, Amended July 30, 2002, Mobile Source Division, California Air Resources Board, cited in §1065.805(f).
(3) California 2001 Through 2014 Model Criteria Pollutant Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures And 2009 Through 2016 Model Greenhouse Gas Exhaust Emission Standards And Test Procedures For Passenger Cars, Light‑Duty Trucks, And Medium‑Duty Vehicles, amended December 6, 2012, cited in §1065.701
(4) California 2015 and Subsequent Model Criteria Pollutant Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures and 2017 and Subsequent Model Greenhouse Gas Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for Passenger Cars, Light‑Duty Trucks, and Medium‑Duty Vehicles, amended December 19, 2018, cited in §1065.701
(e) ISO material. The following standards are available from the International Organization for Standardization, 1, ch. de la Voie‑Creuse, CP 56, CH‑1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, 41‑22‑749‑01‑11, or http://www.iso.org:
(15) ISO 14644‑1:1999, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments (“ISO 14644”), cited in §1065.190(b).
(16)ISO 8178‑1:2020, Reciprocating internal combustion engines — Exhaust emission measurement — Part 1: Test‑bed measurement systems of gaseous and particulate emissions
(f) NIST material. The following documents are available from National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 1070, Gaithersburg, MD 20899‑1070, (301) 975‑6478, or www.nist.gov:
(1) NIST Special Publication 811, 2008 Edition, Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI), March 2008, cited in §§1065.20(a) and 1065.1005.
(2) NIST Technical Note 1297, 1994 Edition, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, cited in §1065.1001.
(g) SAE International material. The following standards are available from SAE International, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096‑0001, (724) 776‑4841, or http://www.sae.org:
(1) SAE 770141, 1977, Optimization of Flame Ionization Detector for Determination of Hydrocarbon in Diluted Automotive Exhausts, Glenn D. Reschke, cited in §1065.360(c).
(2) SAE J1151, Methane Measurement Using Gas Chromatography, stabilized September 2011, cited in §§1065.267(b).
(g) U.S. EPA Material. The following documents are available from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Emissions Measurement Center, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (202) 566‑0556, or www.epa.gov:
(1) Test Method 320—Measurement of Vapor Phase Organic and Iinorganic Emissions by Extractive Fourier Ttransform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, approved January 14, 2019, cited in §1065.266 and §1065.275.
(h) NGPA Material: The following documetns are available from GPA Midstream Association, 6060 American Plaza, Suite 700, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74135, (918) 493‑3872.
(1) Liquefied Petroleum Gas Specifications and Test Methods (“GPA 2140”), approved 1997, cited in §1065.701.