Demonstration of Sensor Technologies for On-Road and Off-Road Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles
Scope of work
The objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using state-of-the-art and innovative sensor technologies to assist in the successful implementation of existing and future regulatory programs. The research will use onboard sensors to monitor nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and large off-road diesel engines (ORDEs). As a secondary priority, the research will also implement sensors to measure other exhaust emissions, such as particulate matter (PM), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous oxide (N2O). This research will determine the accuracy, stability, durability, and operation limitations of different types of on-board sensors, primarily NOx sensors, in measuring real-time real-world diesel vehicle emissions. This research will also use the large real-time datasets collected from both HDDVs and ORDEs to characterize emissions and activity patterns that can be used for regulatory programs and emission inventories, and identify advantages and limitations of using on-board sensors for regulatory programs.
Over the next 30 years, mobile source emissions must be reduced in California to meet federal and state ambient air quality standards and other health and climate targets. The 2020 Mobile Source Strategy anticipated an overall statewide NOx emissions reduction of 514 and 588 tons per day in 2031 and 2037 respectively, which are equivalent to 73 and 82 percent reduction from the 2017 baseline NOx emissions. The strategy also plans to reduce mobile source fuel consumption by 9.5 billion gallons of gasoline and 3.0 billion gallons of diesel equivalent in 2045. To achieve these emission reduction goals, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has been implementing and developing various regulations, such as Heavy-Duty On-Board Diagnostic (HD OBD) regulation, Heavy-Duty Low NOx Omnibus regulation, GHG Emissions Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles (Phase 2), Heavy-Duty Inspection and Maintenance (HD I/M) program, and future Off-Road On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) and low NOx requirements.
Accurate, stable, and durable on-board sensors are necessary for implementing these programs effectively. For example, the Real Emissions Assessment Logging (REAL) requirements in the HD OBD regulation will be implemented for HDDVs to collect and store NOx and CO2 emissions from on-board sensors starting from the 2022 model year (MY). The HD OBD program also requires HDDVs to illuminate the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) when NOx emission control systems are not functioning properly, which will be an important component of the proposed HD I/M program that aims to ensure low emissions throughout a vehicle’s full useful life. Besides, CARB is currently investigating the need for even cleaner new off-road engine standards and OBD requirements, where NOx sensor technology could become an essential component.
For 2024 through 2026 MY engines, the Heavy-Duty Low NOx Omnibus regulation proposes a NOx standard of 0.05 g/bhp-hr over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Supplemental Emission Test Ramped Modal Cycle (RMC-SET), and a NOx standard of 0.20 g/bhp-hr over the Low Load Cycle. Studies have shown that current NOx sensors equipped on HDDVs are not ready for accurately monitoring emissions at such low NOx levels or monitoring emissions over the whole duty cycle. Although sensor manufacturers are developing next-generation NOx sensors that may satisfy such needs, it is unclear how their performance would overcome the limitations of current technology sensors.
The California Phase 2 GHG standards will be phased-in over the 2018 through 2027 MYs for medium-and heavy-duty engines and vehicles. The Phase 2 GHG vehicle standards set CO2 standards in grams emitted from carrying a ton of cargo over a distance of one mile (g/ton-mile) for tractors and vocational vehicles, distinguished by gross combined weight rating (GCWR), duty cycle, and engine type. Unlike the traditional dynamometer testing used for engine certification, Phase 2 GHG vehicle standards require that tractors and vocational vehicles demonstrate compliance using a computer simulation tool, GHG Emissions Model (GEM), that estimates CO2 emissions under simulated real-world driving conditions. Considering potential differences between GEM and actual vehicle operation, it is important to examine simulated CO2 emissions in the real-world either using on-board sensor measurements or fuel consumption rate broadcasted by the engine control unit (ECU).
Scope of Work
The proposer shall procure state-of-the-art and emerging technology NOx and CO2 on-board sensors that are production-ready or in production-intent development. State-of-the-art sensors refer to the newest generation of sensors that are production-ready and can be installed on 2024 MY engines, and emerging technology sensors refer to sensors that are in production-intent development and can be installed on 2024 MY engines. The sensors should be capable of measuring NOx and CO2 emissions accurately across entire HDDV and ORDE duty cycles, including low-temperature and low-load operation conditions. The proposer shall examine the accuracy and linearity of NOx sensor readings in the 0 to 3,000 ppm range, with special attention towards the 0 – 20 ppm range. The proposer shall investigate potential strategies to optimize the performance of NOx sensors (e.g., reduce the sensor warm-up time, reduce the cross-sensitivity of NH3, etc.). The proposer may use engine fuel consumption rate as an alternative measure for CO2 emissions if they successfully demonstrate it through either laboratory or on-road testing or both. The proposer shall integrate NOx and CO2 sensors, a GPS, an ECU data logger into a single data-logging system for real-time data collection. The proposer shall deploy integrated systems on HDDVs and ORDEs in real-world operations, check periodically sensor performance, estimate sensor malfunction rates, and characterize real-world NOx and CO2 emissions for HDDVs and ORDEs separately. As a secondary priority, the proposer shall also procure sensors for additional onboard monitoring of PM, NH3, and N2O as discussed in Task 2.
Task 1. Literature Review
The proposer shall conduct a comprehensive literature and sensor technology review of state-of-the-art and emerging technology sensors for real-time NOx, CO2, PM, NH3, N2O, and vehicle weight measurements. The proposer shall determine the detection limit, accuracy, precision, durability, operation range, and cost of the sensors. The proposer shall review federal and California regulations that include the application of on-board sensors, or regulations that sensors and/or mini-PEMS could be used to provide information comparable to laboratory-grade instruments.
The proposer shall review the aforementioned HDDV and ORDE regulations and identify the different emission characterization metrics (e.g., g/bhp-hr, g/mile, g/hr, g/CO2, etc.) used by these regulations. Using these metrics, the proposer shall evaluate the potentials of state-of-the-art and emerging NOx, PM, and CO2 sensors to comply with regulatory requirements. The proposer shall identify potential advantages of using on-board sensors compared to other technologies (e.g., laboratory-grade PEMS or mini-PEMS). A meta-analysis using existing data from previous projects would be desirable for the evaluation of emission characterization metrics.
Specifically, for NOx sensors, the proposer shall review technology advancement over the past decades, summarize current development efforts, and forecast the potential capabilities of advanced sensors in the 2023 timeframe and beyond. The proposer shall identify the gaps between the capability of widely equipped sensors and current regulatory requirements, and evaluate the possibility of state-of-the-art and emerging sensors to fill such gaps.
For PM sensors, the proposer shall identify the different properties which can be measured, such as black carbon, particle number, particle mass, and opacity, and describe their capabilities.
Deliverables: A literature review of current, state-of-the-art, and emerging sensor technologies; a meta-analysis to identify potential advantages of state-of-the-art or emerging NOx, PM, and CO2 sensors for HDDV and ORDE regulatory requirements.
Task 2. Project Coordination and Sensor Identification
The proposer shall organize a project advisory committee (PAC) in consultation with CARB staff. Committee members may include key partners such as sensor manufacturers, the Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (MECA), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and local air districts. The proposer shall follow PAC recommendations to select sensors for the project. The proposer shall identify at least 4 state-of-the-art sensors and 1 emerging new technology NOx sensor (e.g., laser-based NOx sensor). The proposer shall also identify state-of-art CO2 sensors for real-time emission measurement at the tailpipe. Alternatively, the proposer may use the engine fuel consumption rate broadcasted by the ECU to estimate CO2 emissions if they successfully demonstrate the method through laboratory and/or on-road testing as described in Task 3c. The proposer shall identify onboard sensors or other reliable methods or sources to obtain real-world HDDV weights. The proposer is encouraged to include additional components such as real-time PM, NH3, and N2O sensors for comprehensive emission analysis. Preferably, multiple properties of the PM would be measured, such as black carbon, particle number, particle mass, opacity, and aerosol electrical charge. It is highly desirable if the proposer can secure in-kind support of the sensors and technical support from the manufacturers. The proposer may obtain commitment letters from sensor manufacturers for their supports.
Deliverables: A proposed PAC and a list of candidate sensors for the project
Task 3. Initial Laboratory Testing and Sensor Development
Task 3a. Procure Sensors and Develop a Laboratory Test Plan
The proposer shall discuss with the PAC to develop a laboratory test plan for the evaluation of the sensors identified from Task 2. After the laboratory evaluation, the proposer shall recommend at least 3 models of state-of-the-art NOx sensors and 1 model of emerging technology NOx sensor for the field deployment. The proposer shall procure ten or more NOx sensors for each model. The proposer also shall procure CO2 and vehicle weight sensors for initial laboratory testing (Task 3c). Based on the laboratory test results (Task 3c), the proposer may propose the use of CO2 and vehicle weight sensors for field deployment (Task 4) and final laboratory tests (Task 5).
Laboratory evaluations will include sensor startup, data logging, performance checks, and robustness tests prior to field deployment. The proposer shall interconnect acquired sensors (NOx, CO2, vehicle weight, and other sensors) into an operational data-logging system that can be installed on vehicles over a long time. Since there are many short on/off trips expected in real-world operations, it is desirable if the proposer can configure the data-logging system to delay shutdown after a key-off event. The proposer is expected to develop a minimum of 30 and 10 data-logging systems with state-of-the-art NOx sensors and emerging technology NOx sensors, respectively. It is expected that the vehicle weight sensors would be installed on HDDVs only.
Sensor performance can be evaluated on a test-bench or chassis dynamometer or both (Task 3c). Sensor readings shall be compared with laboratory instrumentation that is compliant with 40 CFR Part 1065 before and after field deployment. Since CARB laboratories run year-round HDDV testing programs such as the Truck and Bus Surveillance Program (TBSP) and the Heavy-Duty In-Use Compliance program (HDIUC), the proposer is highly encouraged to collaborate with CARB for additional sensor performance evaluations either under laboratory or real-world testing conditions. For example, the proposer may collaborate with the TBSP program for chassis dynamometer testing. The proposer may consider collaborating with the HDIUC program to test the data-logging system in real-world operations. The proposer may compare data recorded by the data-logging system with corresponding parameters broadcast by OBD. However, emissions data from the HDIUC program may not be available to the proposer due to data confidentiality and the proposer shall consult with CARB staff during the planning. It is important to note that 40 CFR 1065 compliant PEMS shall not be used as the baseline instrument for the performance evaluation.
Deliverables: A laboratory test plan for the initial evaluation of sensors
Task 3b. NOx Sensor Technology Development
The proposer shall select and collaborate with a manufacturer of emerging technology NOx sensors throughout the project. The manufacturer shall use innovative technology, such as laser-based sensor technology, rather than ceramic-based electrochemical sensor technology. By working with the manufacturer, the proposer shall identify potential merits of using on-board sensors for future regulatory implementations (e.g., heavy-duty in-use compliance, OBD, and HD I/M programs). The proposer shall help the manufacturer to develop and fabricate prototype onboard sensors that will be tested in the laboratory (Tasks 3c and Task 5) and deployed to HDDVs and ORDEs in real-world operations (Task 4). The prototypes are expected to measure NO and NO2 separately, avoid cross-species interference (e.g., NH3, N2O, and H2O), and achieve tenfold lower detection thresholds than current widely-used electrochemical sensors in the diesel exhaust environments. The proposer shall integrate the prototype sensors into the data-logging system, conduct laboratory performance tests, and deploy them for field testing.
Deliverables: Prototype sensors for laboratory testing and field deployment; A technical report of the prototype NOx sensor
Task 3c. Initial Laboratory Evaluation
The proposer shall conduct the initial laboratory evaluation of the data-logging system on a test-bench or chassis dynamometer or both according to the test plan (Task 3a). For either bench testing or chassis dynamometer testing, the proposer shall compare sensor measurements with laboratory instruments to measure sensor accuracy, precision, linearity, detection limit, measurement range, cross-species interference, etc. In consultation with CARB staff, the proposer is encouraged to use the data obtained from the TBSP and HDIUC programs to evaluate sensor performance under real-world driving conditions. Upon the completion of Task 3c, the proposer shall recommend at least 3 models of state-of-the-art NOx sensors and 1 emerging technology NOx sensor for the field deployment to HDDV and ORDE fleets. The proposer shall also determine the use of CO2 and vehicle weight sensors for field deployment (Task 4).
Deliverables: A technical report presenting initial laboratory evaluation results of the sensors and recommendations of sensor deployment to HDDV and ORDE fleets.
Task 4. Sensor Deployment and Field Data Collection
Task 4a. Develop a Field Data Collection Plan
The proposer shall discuss with the PAC to develop a field data collection plan for engine activity and emissions data using OBD data-loggers (capable of collecting GPS data) and integrated data-logging systems. In consultation with the PAC, the proposer shall identify a matrix of 100 HDDVs and 20 large ORDEs by vehicle type and vocational use. HDDVs should be MY 2018 or newer, and 2020+ MY vehicles are preferable. The proposer should seek out and prioritizevehicles that travel through disadvantaged communities near ports, rail yards, warehouses and major freeways. ORDEs should be compliant with the Tier 4 final engine standards and have power ratings in the range of 56 to 560 kW (75 to 750 hp). ORDEs should be equipped with both a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). HDDVs and ORDEs should be equipped with NOx sensors that are recorded by the vehicle OBD or ECU system.
The proposer shall install OBD data-loggers on all HDDVs and ORDEs to acquire instantaneous engine operation data for at least 4 weeks. The proposer may use the in-use test procedures in the Heavy-Duty Low NOx Omnibus regulation as a reference to select OBD parameters. Desired OBD parameters include but are not limited to NOx concentration, engine rpm, fuel rate, actual engine percentage torque, friction torque, engine reference torque, engine load, exhaust temperature, aftertreatment device control status, pedal, and other operator control positions. In addition to OBD data, the proposer shall collect vehicle location data by global positioning system (GPS), time-synchronized with OBD data. The proposer shall identify methods to record the vehicle cargo weight in real-world operations, such as using vehicle weight sensors or electronic log information according to the recommendation from Task 3c. The proposer is encouraged to employ sensors to measure ambient temperature, humidity, and pressure. The recorded data should be used to estimate real-world NOx and CO2 emissions using the aforementioned emission characterization metrics.
The proposer shall develop a feasible method to deploy integrated data-logging systems on a subset of vehicles for a minimum of 1-year of field testing. The proposer shall use OBD data loggers to simultaneously record the broadcast OBD or ECU data for these vehicles. The proposer shall use the data-logging systems with state-of-the-art NOx sensors to collect the data for one full year from 15 HDDVs and 15 ORDEs. The proposer shall use the data-logging systems with emerging technology NOx sensors to collect the data for one full year from 5 HDDVs and 5 ORDEs. To meet the one full year data-logging requirement, the proposer may install a data-logging system on multiple vehicles to accumulate one full year's worth of data as long as the vehicles are in the same fleet and vocational use. The proposer shall develop a plan to conduct periodic checks on the sensor performance.
Deliverables: A field data collection plan with OBD data-loggers and integrated data-logging systems with state-of-the-art or emerging technology sensors.
Task 4b. Conduct Field Testing
The proposer shall instrument all the recruited vehicles with OBD data loggers according to the field data collection plan developed from Task 4a. After installing the data loggers, the proposer shall verify if OBD data are recorded properly. For each vehicle instrumented, the proposer shall collect vehicle and engine information such as vehicle type, vehicle vocation, trailer type, aerodynamic features, engine make, size, model and model year, certification standard, hours of use, and after-treatment configuration. The proposer shall use engine diagnostic software, such as SilverScan, to get diagnostic snapshots before and after the field testing. Each vehicle should be operated in the field for at least a month.
The proposer shall deploy integrated data-logging systems with state-of-the-art or emerging technology sensors on a subset of HDDVs and ORDEs. The data-logging system should be independent of the vehicle’s OBD system and record data separately. The proposer shall verify that the data-logging system will not interfere with regular truck operation. Each data-logging system should be deployed in the field for a minimum of one year. The proposer shall conduct periodic performance checks of the systems according to the field data collection plan. The proposer shall also verify that the vehicle cargo weight is recorded correctly.
Deliverables: Regular technical progress updates as data collection progresses
Task 5. Final Laboratory Evaluation
Upon the completion of field testing, the proposer shall conduct laboratory testing to evaluate the performance of NOx and CO2 sensors employed in the data-logging systems. The final laboratory evaluation should be conducted in a similar way as the initial laboratory evaluation. The proposer shall check for any changes in sensor accuracy and precision, and evaluate maintenance records to understand observed changes.
Deliverables: A technical report presenting final laboratory evaluation results of the sensors
Task 6. Data Analysis and Recommendations
The proposer shall develop a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan for data collected in task 4 and make sure the data meet the QA/QC criteria, by removing erroneous data and outliers.
Task 6a. Evaluate Sensor Performance
The proposer shall determine the accuracy, precision, stability, durability, and operation limitations of the on-board sensors, primarily focusing on NOx measurements by analyzing the data collected for Tasks 3 to 5. Specifically, the proposer shall compare state-of-the-art and emerging technology NOx sensors with the NOx sensors originally equipped on the vehicles to understand technological improvements.
Task 6b. Characterize Real-World Activities and Emissions
The proposer shall investigate vehicle activity patterns, the location of the routes being driven by the vehicle, cold-start emissions and their impacts, and differences between NOx sensors originally equipped on the vehicles and the advanced NOx sensors integrated into the data-logging systems either by individual vehicle or vocational group. The proposer shall provide real-world NOx and CO2 emissions profiles for specific vocations and applications. The proposer shall characterize the impact of ambient conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity, and altitude) on emissions. The proposer shall analyze real-world activities and emissions data following relevant requirements in CARB regulations and emission inventories, such as REAL in HD OBD regulation, the Heavy-Duty Low NOx Omnibus regulation, GHG phase 1 and 2 regulations, and EMFAC. The proposer shall choose appropriate emission characterization metrics (g/hr, g/mi, g/bhp-hr, and g/ton-mile) in the analysis. The proposer shall compare these emission metrics, identify the advantages and limitations of using sensor measurements for the current regulatory programs, recommend potential modifications to the current programs, and propose new streamlined control strategies.
Under the guidance of the PAC, the proposer may analyze emissions and activity patterns of selected vehicles or vocations between communities (disadvantaged vs non-disadvantaged), road types (major highways vs local arterials), and populated areas (urban vs rural). The proposer may identify the potential inequality in vehicle emissions for environmental justice areas.
Task 6c. Characterize CO2 emission reductions compared to previous studies
The proposer shall compare CO2 emissions of HDDVs and ORDEs measured in this project with existing data to characterize CO2 emission changes over time. The proposer shall consider the effect of road grade when comparing CO2 emissions. Road grade may be estimated using GPS locations or obtained from road elevation databases. Examples of existing vehicle activity and emissions data include Collection of Activity Data from On-Road Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles (contract # 13-301), Collection of Tractor-Trailer Activity Data (contract # 14-302), 200 HDV Emissions and Activity Data Collection (contract # 16RD012), In-Use Emissions from Diesel Off-Road Engines (contract # 08-315), Caltrans Tier 4 Final Heavy-Duty Construction Equipment Emissions Measurement, Collection of Construction Equipment Activity Data (contract # 17RD013), Collection of Agricultural Equipment Activity Data (contract # 19RD002), and Manufacturer-Run In-Use Testing Program for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines (HDIUT).
Task 6d. Compile Activity Patterns for EMFAC and OFFROAD
The proposer shall compile the second-by-second data from the field testing to support the development of future EMFAC and OFFROAD models. For each vehicle category and vocation type, the proposer shall analyze the OBD and GPS data collected in this project to determine the number of cold/warm starts per day, soak time distribution per day, as well as statistics and distributions of trip durations, idle hours, engine load factors, and exhaust temperatures. The PAC will provide specific guidance in creating summary statistics for the models. The proposer shall also compare observed activity patterns with previous studies and existing testing cycles.
Task 6e. Recommendations
Based on the results from the aforementioned analyses (Tasks 6a to 6d) and in consultation with the PAC, the proposer shall forecast viable technological roadmaps for on-board sensors to meet and exceed regulatory requirements. In consultation with the PAC, the proposer shall analyze the potential environmental and economic impacts of deploying state-of-the-art and emerging technology sensors across HDDVs and ORDEs.
Deliverables: Draft analysis results for each subtask
Task 7. Reporting and Data Sharing
The proposer shall provide a timeline on the completion of tasks and interim report delivery. Individual interim reports shall be delivered for each Task 1 through 6. A final report will be delivered containing information from interim reports as well as all the data and analyses generated through the course of this project. Quarterly progress reports shall be prepared using CARB standard templates.
Deliverables: technical progress update upon the completion of each subtask
Beginning this fiscal year, 2021-2022, CARB’s Research Division (RD) will require its contracted research projects to embody racial equity components. The newly instituted initiative calls for all RD contracted projects to adopt racial equity components into their research. In light of this commitment to advance racial equity in research, RD will work closely with contractors to not only increase solicitation awareness but also find opportunities to connect researchers with non-academic partners. Moving forward, RD staff will work with multiple interested stakeholders to develop additional well-established racial equity components that reflect the policies, programs, and interests of CARB to achieve equitable and healthy sustainable community strategies that meet California’s climate goals. The equity components that we hope to see included in the proposals that we receive through this solicitation include those listed in this section below.
- Periodic consultation calls with CARB and key stakeholders;
- Quarterly progress reports;
- Interim reports for each Task 1 to 6
- Draft final report;
- Final Report and in-person or virtual seminar (pending health requirements);
- All data, analyses, and analytical tools generated through the course of this project;
- In addition to the above deliverables, the project must incorporate equity components that could include but are not limited to the following:
- Encourage non-academic partners, such as non-profits or community advocates; and/or encourage academic partners new to CARB contracting and/or from smaller universities;
- Work with CARB to create plain-language outreach deliverables for the public (available in multiple languages and formats)
It is anticipated that this project will be completed in 36 months from the start date. This allows 30 months for completion of all tasks and preparation of a draft final report. The last 6 months are for review of the draft final report by CARB staff and the Research Screening Committee (RSC), modification of the draft final report by the proposer in response to CARB staff and RSC comments, and delivery of a revised final report and data files to CARB. The total cost should not exceed $750,000.
In order to increase transparency of how winning pre-proposals are chosen, scoring criteria have been included for each project. Please note that scoring criteria is tailored to each project included in CARB's fiscal year 2021-2022 solicitation. If you are submitting pre-proposals for more than one project in the solicitation, please be sure to review the scoring criteria to get a better understanding of what components of the project are most valued for selection.
- RESPONSIVENESS TO THE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OUTLINED IN THE PROPOSAL SOLICITATION (15 points) - Proposers should demonstrate a clear understanding of the policy objectives and research needs that CARB seeks to address with this project, and should convey their knowledge of the subject. The proposal should spell out, in adequate detail, exactly what the Proposer proposes to do to satisfy the requirements of the Solicitation. The draft proposal must propose work that would satisfy the objective(s) stated in the Research Solicitation: The objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using state-of-the-art and innovative sensor technologies to assist in the successful implementation of existing and future regulatory programs.
- POLICY RELEVANCE/BENEFITS TO THE STATE(10 points) – Does the proposal describe how the project will provide data, information, and/or products to help CARB accomplish its mission? This project should provide data and information to help CARB successfully implement on-road HD on-board diagnostic (OBD), inspection & maintenance and in-use compliance programs, and developing off-road low NOx and OBD programs.
- PREVIOUS WORK (10 points) – Do the researchers have relevant experience in this area? Do they discuss how they will build upon previous relevant work that was funded by CARB, other state agencies, and other organizations (e.g. the U.S. EPA, South Coast AQMD)?
- EXPANDING EXPERTISE (10 points) – Does the team bring in new talent that has not worked with CARB previously? Is the team composed of a multidisciplinary team of experts? Researchers new to CARB are encouraged to apply and partner with multidisciplinary teams.
- TECHNICAL MERIT (25 points) - Describe the submission's technical strengths and/or weaknesses. Proposers should demonstrate the logic and feasibility of the methodology and technical approach to the project, spell out the sequence and relationships of major tasks, and explain methods for performing the actual work. Please factor in how well the draft proposal describes these areas:
- The proposers should describe the resources (e.g., industry partners) that will be used for literature and sensor technology review.
- The proposers should clearly state their willingness to coordinate and collaborate with CARB and other partners.
- The proposers should demonstrate that they have access to state-of-the-art and emerging technology NOx sensors
- The proposers should demonstrate that they will be able to recruit a sufficient amount of heavy-duty diesel vehicles and off-road engines for the project
- The proposers should demonstrate their capabilities in evaluating sensor performances
- The proposers should demonstrate their experiences in integrating multiple sensors into a unit for on-board applications
- The proposers should demonstrate knowledge of on-board diagnostic systems.
- The proposers should demonstrate capabilities of conduct necessary emission testing
- The proposers should demonstrate capabilities of conducting long-term data-logging in the field.
- The proposers should demonstrate their experiences in conducting data analyses listed in Task 6
- The review team will be selecting only one draft proposal for development into a full proposal. If this draft proposal has potential, what areas or topics should be prioritized or better explained in the full proposal?
- LEVEL AND QUALITY OF EFFORT TO BE PROVIDED(15 points) – Does the proposal allocate time and resources in such a way that the objectives of the study will be met? Is supervision and oversight adequate for ensuring that the project will remain on schedule? Is the distribution of workload appropriate for activities such as research, evaluation and analysis, data reduction, computer simulation, report preparation, meetings, and travel?
- COST EFFECTIVENESS (15 points) - Does the cost seem appropriate for the proposed work? Does the proposed work seem feasible within the requested budget? Projects that provide co-funding should be evaluated more favorably.