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Off-Road Equipment Electrification
Technical Opportunity: Zero-Emission and Hybrid Off-Road Equipment (ORE)
Financial and Regulatory Support for ORE Electrification
Research Opportunity and Support for ORE Electrification
Research Opportunity and Support for Off-Road Equipment Electrification
Related research projects and upcoming datasets from the ongoing activity data collection
CARB is conducting numerous research projects and discusses the research opportunity with the upcoming data survey deliverables from various ORE types. The obtained activity profiles will help numerous researchers understand activity patterns and capture emission characteristics of various ORE types.
Activity Data of Off-Road Engines in Construction (Contract Number: 17RD013)
This project aims to collect in-use engine activity data from various ORE types and assess and characterize the operating patterns of the ORE engines. The obtained real-world data includes engine control unit (ECU) parameters related to the internal combustion engine’s performance and air pollution control devices. For the given project period, the research team collected data from 54 pieces of construction equipment with nine different equipment types. The obtained data can be used to 1) estimate load factor (%) and improve the emission inventory, 2) identify operational and environmental characteristics of various off-road equipment types, and 3) assess the energy demand required and project electrification potential per type.
Hybridization and Full Electrification Potential in Off-Road Applications (Contract Number: 18RD016)
This research aimed to assess the electrification potential of various construction and similar equipment operating in California. The key findings of this study are: 1) Various alternative fuel types and equipment architectures were found across equipment types, 2) Each equipment type has different electrification progress depending on the research attention received, 3) The collected in-use operational data shows significantly different operating patterns from the certification cycles, 4) Analyses of the real-world activity and energy demand of selected equipment types reveal that equipment with the daily energy demand of under 500kWh could be electrified and deployed with a 50kW charging option, and 5) Replacement of older equipment is likely to be more cost-effective in terms of NOx and PM2.5 emission benefits because of their non-compliance to newer, more stringent emission standards.
Collection and Analysis of Agricultural Equipment Activity Data (Contract Number: 19RD002)
This research project will collect engine and after-treatment system performance data from up to 200 agriculture tractors’ Engine Control Unit (ECU). The project will characterize how agricultural engines in the San Joaquin Valley operate under actual working conditions, including their activity parameters (e.g., engine speed, torque, and fuel rate) and maintenance frequency, crop and land types of agricultural operation performed, hours of operation, and cost. The results can be used to improve the emission inventories and to inform policies and incentive programs for off-road engines and equipment.
Full Cost Analysis and Business Case Study of Off-Road Zero-Emission Equipment (Contract Number: 21MSC006)
The goals of this project are 1) performing a full cost analysis of battery-electric and fuel cell technology in the ground off-road equipment sector and 2) analyzing the 175 horsepower under business case for manufacturers and operators of ZE ORE. The research team will estimate equipment production potential for each equipment type based on various measures, such as the performance of the ZE powertrain compared to the diesel counterparts, operational changes, availability of component suppliers, maintenance/fuel cost, etc.