Stationary Fuel Cell Net Energy Metering: Emission Standards
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards set under the Fuel Cell Net Energy Metering Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards Regulation are used to determine fuel cell system eligibility for the California Public Utilities Commission’s Net Energy Metering program, which provides monetary incentives to systems that can achieve these standards, among other requirements. The annual GHG emission standards are listed below.
* Kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted per megawatt-hour
Emission Standard Calculations
Standards for 2017 to 2022 are listed in Section 95411 of the Fuel Cell Net Energy Metering Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards Regulation, while the post-2022 standards are determined according to the timing and equations listed in Section 95412 of the regulation. The 2023 to 2025 standards were calculated utilizing data elements from two publications:
- California Energy Commission’s (CEC) Thermal Efficiency of Natural Gas-Fired Generation report: State average natural gas-fired electric generation heat rate value (British thermal units per kilowatt-hour (Btu/kWh)), excluding cogeneration plants, for 2021 or the most recent year that data are available from CEC. The most recent available value is 7,728 Btu/kWh, from the 2019 update.
- California Independent System Operator’s Annual Report on Market Issues and Performance: Hours the day-ahead market electricity price was at or below zero for 2021, or the most recent year that day-ahead market electricity price data are available. The most recent available value is 130 hours, from the 2019 annual report.