California's Greenhouse Gas Vehicle Emission Standards under Assembly Bill 1493 of 2002 (Pavley)
In 2002, recognizing that global warming would impose compelling and extraordinary impacts on California, the legislature adopted and the Governor signed Assembly Bill (AB) 1493, Chapter 200, Statutes of 2002, authored by Assemblymember Pavley. The bill recognized that global warming (climate change) is a public health concern, that motor vehicles are a major source of the state’s greenhouse gas emissions, and that reducing these emissions will protect public health and the environment while stimulating the economy and enhancing job opportunities. Among other things, the bill directed the Air Resources Board (CARB) to adopt regulations that achieve the maximum feasible and cost effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from passenger vehicles, beginning with the 2009 model year. (California Health and Safety Code, § 43018.5.) The Board approved those regulations, sometimes called the Pavley regulations, at its September 2004 hearing, and they were adopted in their final form in August 2005. In December 2005, CARB submitted a request to U.S. EPA for a waiver of preemption under the federal Clean Air Act to allow California to enforce its greenhouse gas emission standards.
In response, some motor vehicle manufacturers, automobile dealers, and their trade associations challenged these regulations in numerous federal and state court proceedings and opposed California’s waiver request to U.S. EPA.
In March 2008, U.S. EPA denied California’s request for a waiver. That decision was based, among other things, on a finding that California’s request to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from passenger vehicles did not meet the Clean Air Act requirement of showing that the waiver was needed to meet “compelling and extraordinary conditions.”
In May 2009, several automakers, California, and the federal government committed to a series of actions to resolve those current and potential future disputes over the standards through model year 2016. This agreement formed the genesis of a national program to reduce greenhouse gases and improve fuel economy from passenger vehicles to achieve equivalent or greater greenhouse gas benefits as the Pavley regulations for the 2012 through 2016 model years.
On July 8, 2009, U.S. EPA granted California a waiver for the Pavley regulations. (74 Fed. Reg. 32,744, July 8, 2009.)
After adopting these initial greenhouse gas standards for passenger vehicles, CARB adopted continuing standards for future model years.
Interim Joint Technical Assessment Report (U.S. EPA, NHTSA, ARB)
- Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards for Model Years 2017-2025
- U.S. EPA Notice of Intent
Addendum to February 25, 2008 - Enhanced Technical Assessment
- Comparison of GHG Reductions for the U.S. and Canada under CARB GHG Regulations and Proposed Federal 2011-2015 Model Year Fuel Economy Standards (May 8, 2008)
Enhanced Technical Assessment
- Comparison of GHG Reductions of the U.S. and Canada under U.S. CAFE Standards and CARB GHG Regulations (February 25, 2008)
Addendum to January 2, 2008 - Technical Assessment
- Comparison of GHG Reductions for all Fifty U.S. under CAFE Standards and CARB Regulations Adopted Pursuant to AB 1493 (January 23, 2008)
- Comparison of GHG Reductions under CAFE Standards and CARB Regulations Adopted Pursuant to AB 1493 (January 2, 2008)
Archive of Public Meetings
April 21, 2008 - ARB and ITS-Davis hosted a one day Symposium
CARB and ITS-Davis hosted a one day Symposium at the CalEPA headquarters discussing policy mechanisms for further reductions in vehicle greenhouse gas emissions.
Presentations (available upon request)
- A systems approach to LDV technologies - Sandy Stojkovski (Ricardo)
- Maximizing benefits from current technologies - K.G. Duleep (ICFI)
- Aerodynamics and weight reduction - Paul Sills (Lotus)
- Weight reduction and safety implications - John German (Honda)
- Direct shift gearbox transmissions and hybrids - Bill Kelley (BorgWarner)
- Hybrids and plug-in hybrids - Paul Boskovitch (Ricardo)
- Benefits of advanced diesel hybrids - Konstantin Neiss (Daimler)
- Fuel cell vehicles - Britta Gross (General Motors)
- Nissan Green Program 2010 - Jack Sayed (Nissan)
- Panel Moderator - David Greene (ORNL)
- Feebates: Critical Points - John German (Honda)
- Beyond Pavley Feebate Designs - Spencer Quong (Union of Concerned Scientists)
- An Economic Analysis of Feebates for California - (Dr. Walter McManus)
- Fuel Economy, VMT and Transport Policy - Lee Schipper (UC Berkeley)
- When prices are more than prices and not everything of value is priced - Ken Kurani (ITS - Davis)
- Vehicles in the Cap: Alternative Regulatory Options to Limiting Passenger Vehicle GHG Emissions as Required by California's Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) (EDF - Tim O'Connor)
May 22 & 30, 2007 Public Hearing
U.S. EPA Public Hearings on California's request for a waiver to implement a Greenhouse gases reduction measure for motor vehicles.
The first hearing was held May 22 at the U.S. EPA's Potomac Yard Conference Center, in Arlington, Virginia.
The second hearing was held May 30 at the Cal/EPA Headquarters, in Sacramento, California.
The U.S. EPA's contact for these meetings was David Dickinson, Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
December 21, 2005 Waiver Request
On December 21, 2005 the Air Resources Board submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency a Request for Waiver of Preemption Under Clean Air Act Section 209(b) regarding California's regulations to control greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles: The final rulemaking package was approved by OAL and filed with the Secretary of the State on September 15, 2005. It will become operative on October 15, 2005. Pursuant to section 1961.1(g), Title 13, California Code of Regulations, it will be effective on January 1, 2006.
- Request for Waiver of Preemption
- Attachment 1: Executive Order G-05-061
- Attachment 2: Support Document
- Attachment 3: List of Support Documentation
September 23, 2004 Board Meeting
Public Hearing Notice and Final Staff Report: Visit Formal Regulatory Documents for a copy of the Public Hearing Notice and Final Staff Report for the rulemaking on the proposed regulations to control greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. (Hearing Date: September 23)