State of California

Summary of Board Meeting
May 12-13, 1994

State Building
Auditorium, Room 1138
107 South Broadway
Los Angeles, California

MEMBERS PRESENT:  Hons. Jacqueline E. Schafer, Chairwoman
                                                 Brian Bilbray
                                                 Eugene A. Boston, M.D.
                                                 Joseph C. Calhoun, P.E.
                                                 Lynne T. Edgerton, Esq.
                                                 M. Patricia Hilligoss
                                                 John S. Lagarias, P.E.
                                                 Jack C. Parnell
                                                 Barbara Riordan
                                                 Doug Vagim
                                                 Harriett Wieder



Public Meeting to Consider a Status Report on the Implementation of the Low-Emission Vehicle Regulations


On May 12-13, 1994, ARB staff presented the second biennial update of the California low-emission vehicle and clean fuel regulations, which were initially adopted by the Board in September 1990. The low-emission vehicle regulations created four new categories of vehicles: transitional low-emission vehicles (TLEVs); low-emission vehicles (LEVs); ultra-low-emission vehicles (ULEVs); and zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs).

Based on discussions with emission control suppliers and automobile manufacturers, plus testing of advanced prototype vehicles at ARB, the staff concluded that technology is available to meet the requirements of the TLEV, LEV, and ULEV categories. The cost of these low-emission vehicles was determined to be moderate and the program was found to be highly cost-effective. TLEVs were estimated to cost an additional $66 for the consumer, LEVs an additional $120, and ULEVs an additional $227. In contrast, manufacturers' cost estimates were significantly higher than ARB estimates. However, manufacturers did not provide any data to substantiate their claims.

Concerning ZEVs, the staff provided an assessment of advances in ZEV technology, projected costs, potential consumer demand, and environmental and economic benefits of ZEVs. Significant technological progress has been made since the ZEV mandate was adopted by the Board in 1990. Based on this progress, the staff concluded that technology is developing at a rate that will produce a commercially viable electric vehicle by 1998. The staff also found that the cost of electric vehicles, including batteries, will be similar to the cost of conventional vehicles in the long-term, and that electric vehicles represent a cost-effective means of reducing emissions in California. With regard to consumer demand, the staff concluded that electric vehicles can satisfy the average daily travel needs of most California consumers and have the potential to achieve considerable market penetration by 1998. Most importantly, the staff analysis shows that electric vehicles offer significant emission reduction benefits because they do not have tailpipe emissions or emission control equipment that can deteriorate over time. In addition, electric vehicles have the potential to create new opportunities for economic growth in California as a result of the ZEV requirement.

The Board heard testimony from legislators, auto manufacturers, battery manufacturers, utilities, government agencies, and other interested parties. The Board heard that the technology is available to meet the requirements for TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs on schedule and that the program is cost-effective. After hearing both the proponents and opponents of the ZEV mandate, the Board acknowledged that the mandate continues to be a positive force towards achieving the goals of the low-emission vehicle regulations, and that it must remain in place. The Board indicated it will involve itself in assuring sucessful implementation of the regulation, including market, infrastructure, and battery development. The Board also assured interested parties that if new and compelling information becomes available, the Board will schedule meetings to review the new information.



Senator Tom Hayden                    California State Senate

Assemblyman Bernie Richter         California State Assembly

Dr. Richard Klimisch                     Engineering Affairs Div., AAMA

Peter Pestillo                                 Ford

Sam Leonard                                GM

Gordon Allardyce                         Chrysler

Robert Stempel                             Retired Chair/CEO, GM

Gregory Dana                               AIAM

Yoshitomo Shito                           JAMA

John Schutz                                  Nissan

Jonathan Haines                            Toyota

John Williams                                USABC

Michael Fetcenko                          Ovonic

Dr. Ing Wolfgang Jutting                 AEG

John Jones                                     INCO SPP

Bill Auxer                                       Silent Power

Bill Craven                                     Horizon/Electrosource

Dana Drescher                               DEMI

Jonathan Whartman                        Electric Fuel

Robert Nelson, Ph.D.                     International Lead Zinc

Reznor Orr                                     Powercell

Dan Spak                                       Westinghouse

Bill Tiedman                                    Johnson Controls

Sanjay Deshpande                           GNB Battery Technology

Wayne Davis                                   Trojan

David A. Bushey                              El Dorado Systems Concept 80's

Bruce Bertelsen                                MECA

Michael Gage                                   CALSTART

Charles Imbrecht                              CEC

Cece Martin                                     Electric Transportation Coalition

Greg Vlasek                                     California Natural Gas Vehicle

Clark Gellings                                   EPRI

Reste Bevilaqua                                BKI for EPRI

Diane Wittenberg                              So. Cal. Edison

Roland Risser                                    PG&E

Andrew Hirsch                                  The Gas Company

Winston Ashizawa                             SMUD

Frank Lynch                                      Hydrogen Consultants

Venki Raman                                     Air Products

Bob Flemmings                                  Ballard Power Systems

Dr. Ray Smith                                    Lawrence Livermore National

Peter A. Lehman, Ph.D.                     Humboldt State

Mitja Hinderks                                   California Alternate Propulsion

Dennis Virag                                       Automotive Consulting Group, Inc.

Assemblyman Richard Katz                California State Assembly

Hank Wedaa                                      SCAQMD/North American Clean
                                                          Air Coalition

Norton Younglove                              Riverside County

Dr. James Lents                                  SCAQMD

John Cox                                            SCAG

Marvin Braude                                    City of Los Angeles

Mahesh Talwar                                   Santa Barbara APCD

Dan Sperling                                       Institute of Transportation Studies

Tom Turrentine                                   Institute of Transportation Studies

Richard Maulin                                   Fairbank, Maslin, and Maulin

Peter Welch                                       California Motor Car Dealers

Jerry Mader                                       Mader and Associates

Robin Segal                                        University of Pennsylvania

Lon Bell                                              Amerigon

Doug Henderson                                 WSPA

Victor Magistrale, Ph.D.                      American Lung Association

Gladys Meade                                     American Lung Association

Dennis Zane                                        Coalition for Clean Air

Janet Hathaway                                   NRDC

Roland Hwang                                     Union of Concerned Scientists

Jennifer Jennings                                   Planning and Conservation

Carlos Porras                                       Citizens For A Better

Mary Raftery                                        CALPIRG

Paul Staples                                          Clean Air Now

John McCaull                                        National Audubon Society

James McKenzie                                   World Resources Institute

V. John White                                       V. John White Associates

Bud Phillips                                           Monitor Co.

Carl Perry                                             U.S. Electricar

Gorik Hossepian                                   Allied Signal

Neil Garcia-Sinclair                               IWON Motronics

Howard Wilson                                     Citizen

Norman Conwill                                    EPTI

Bob Martino                                          Battery Automated

Joseph Hoffman                                     Westinghouse

John Reuyl, Ph.D.                                  NEVCOR

Alan Holmes                                          Citizen

Anthony Trujillo                                     Citizen

Jamison Handy, Jr.                                 Citizen

Tom Hansen                                          Citizen

John Howell                                           Citizen

Chris Niles                                             Labor Watchdog Group

Howard Olson                                       Citizen

Lee Stephens                                         BESCI

Anthony Bolotsky                                  Citizen

Tom Austin                                            Sierra Research

Malcom Currie                                       Project California



STAFF REPORT:  Yes (84 pages)