Forest Trail


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Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA)

A federal law passed in 1970 and amended in 1974, 1977 and 1990 that forms the basis for the national air pollution control effort. Basic elements of the act include national ambient air quality standards for major air pollutants, mobile and stationary control measures, air toxics standards, acid rain control measures and enforcement provisions. For more information, visit the Federal Clean Air Act.

Federal Implementation Plan (FIP)

In the absence of an approved State Implementation Plan (SIP), a plan prepared by the U.S. EPA that provides measures that nonattainment areas must take to meet the requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act.


A market-based emission fee in which the fee is levied on projected lifecycle vehicle emissions and is refunded according to an allocation formula.

Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV)

Vehicles that can use a combination of fuels such as alcohol fuel and unleaded gasoline.

Fly Ash

Air borne solid particles that result from the burning of coal and other solid fuel.

Foreign Military Officer

Any active duty military personnel of a foreign country assigned to a California military installation as part of an exchange or joint training agreement authorized or sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense. Foreign Military Officers are not subject to California direct import vehicle requirements for registration and have the same privileges as out-of-state military personnel.

Fossil Fuels

Fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas; so-called because they are the remains of ancient plant and animal life.

Fuel Cell

An electrochemical cell that captures the electrical energy of a chemical reaction between fuels such as liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen and converts it directly and continuously into the energy of a direct electrical current. For more information, see the ARB's fuel cell portal.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

A zero-emission vehicle that runs on compressed hydrogen fed into a fuel cell "stack" that produces electricity to power the vehicle.

Fugitive Dust

Dust particles that are introduced into the air through certain activities such as soil cultivation, or vehicles operating on open fields or dirt roadways. This is a subset of fugitive emissions.

Fugitive Emissions

Emissions not caught by a capture system; which are often due to equipment leaks, evaporative processes and windblown disturbances.


Solid particles under 1 micron in diameter formed as vapors condense, or as chemical reactions take place.

Functional Equivalent Environmental Document (FED)

The California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) allows public agencies to prepare a plan or other written documentation in lieu of an environmental impact report (i.e., a functional equivalent environmental document) which outlines the environmental analyses as part of any regulatory process. Prior to taking final action on any proposal for which significant environmental issues have been raised, the decision maker will provide a written response to each such issue.


A combustion chamber; an enclosed structure in which fuel is burned to heat air or material.